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This study was undertaken to ascertain the Broadcast Campaigns And Child Abuse In Eket Local Government Area, this study was aim at analyzing the extent of Child Abuse among Eket residents, to achieve a credible research work, several instruments were employed, for example to ensure the validity of this  project the entire work was  subjected to scrutiny by communication experts who made valuable corrections. Also in order to achieved a good outcome, a total of 383 questionnaires were administered to members of the public and 370 were completed and returned constituting 92.4% of the total copies distributed. Through this research it was establish that a large number of Children in Eket still under goes Child Abuse ranching from neglect, physical abuse, psychological abuse and sexual abuse. It was also ascertain that broadcast Media institutions need to step up their Campaigns in creating awareness on Child Abuse to the People of Eket. Based on the findings of this research, it is concluded that the campaign on child abuse has a positive influence on how the people of Eket now view children in their environment, and therefore the campaign on child abuse has positive influence on child’s protection, child value therefore public awareness remain and important part in our societal growth.




1.1       Background to the study -  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        1

1.1.1   Eket Local Government Area         -        -        -        -                  -        4

1.2       Statement of the Problem   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        7

1.3       Objectives of the Study  -  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        8

1.4       Research Questions -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        9

1.5     Hypothesis           -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        9

1.6       Justification of the Study  -                   -        -        -        -        -        -        10

1.7       Delimitations of the Study           -        -        -        -        -        -        11

1.8       Limitations of the Study -  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        11

1.9       Definition of Terms  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        12



2.1       Review of Concepts /Opinions -   -        -        -        -        -        -        13

2.1.2   The Concept of Child Abuse  -     -        -        -        -        -        -        15

2.1.3   Dimensions of Child Abuse-        -        -        -        -        -        -        17

2.1.4   Parental Income and the effect on the Physical  well-being of the Child        20

2.1.5   Consequences of Child Abuse  -   -        -        -        -        -        -        24

2.1.6   Impact of Media Campaign on Child Abuse -    -        -        -        -        25

2.1.7   Broadcast Media and Attitude  Change Toward Child Abuse  -         -        27

2.2       Review of Related Studies  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        31

2.2.1  Foster I.C (2015)  Influence Of Child Abuse And Neglect On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students (A Case Study Of Udi L.G.A) … A   B S. c project submitted to the departments of Mass communication University of Enugu State.

2.2.2  Etim, E. A. (2010) Influence Of African Independent Television As A Watchdog Against Child Abuse And Labour With A Particular Focus To Child Trafficking (A Case Study Of Uyo metropolis)

2.3       Theoretical Frameworks  - -        -        -        -        -        -        -        33

2.3.1   Agenda Setting Theory  -   -        -        -        -        -        -        -        33

2.3.2   Social Responsibility Theory -     -        -        -        -        -        -        34



3.1       Research Design      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        36

3.2       Population of the Study  -  -        -        -        -        -        -        -        37

3.3       Sample Size   -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           -           37

3.4       Sampling Procedures  -      -        -        -        -        -        -        -        38

3.5       Description of Research Instruments  -   -        -        -        -        -        38

3.6       Validity of Research Instruments-          -        -        -        -        -        -        39

3.7       Method of Data Collection -        -        -        -        -        -        -        39

3.8       Method of Data Analysis  -          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        40




4.1       Data Presentation and Analysis  - -        -        -        -        -        -        41

4.2     Test of hypothesis         -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        51

4.3       Discussion of Findings -    -        -        -        -        -        -        -        52



5.1       Summary of findings -       -        -        -        -        -        -        -        56

5.2       Conclusion  -          -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        58

5.3       Recommendations - -        -        -        -        -        -        -        -        58


Appendix 1



1.1       Background of the study

            The Nigerian society and indeed African societies in general highly values children. This is because of the intrinsic and emotional satisfaction children offer their parents as well as the instrumental role they play in lineage and kinship matters. Moreover, God sees the need of sending children to parent for the purpose of multiplication, joy and happiness in the home. The birth of a child is thus celebrated in the society, in many circumstances, with joy, songs and dance Kisekka (2001) asserts that in Nigeria, the first  year of a child’s life is certainly a centre of attention. He is often carried on the back, curdled, bathed and talked to by an array of old relations. The child, therefore, rarely eats plays as well as sleeps alone.

            Okwara (2005) notes that a child is a valuable gift from God and every ethnic group in Nigerian puts high value on children. In spite of this, it is unfortunate that some children have been exposed to abuse and neglect. Okolo (2008) reports that in several Nigerian communities, children are rejected and sometimes sent to the streets to fend for themselves and learn how to survive on their own. Bidemi and Adefuye (2007) are of the view that it has always been their custom for children to help their parents work.

Children of trader would assist their parents to sell their goods; those of farmer would help them on the farm. Today, the perception has changed drastically as adult supervision of the children has reduced in several cases.

            The child is now sent into the streets and highways alone. Sometimes to the market to sell goods, he is battered, under-nourished, poorly clothed and often abuse takes forms which include: beating with the hand, beating with available instruments, kicking and knocking on hard objects, strangling and suffocating, stabbing on slashing drowning, burning, poisoning, deliberate neglect, exposure, hawking, lock in, starvation and education deprivation. All these practices expose the child to injuries and emotional tensions that do not allow for their effective growth and development.

            Fontona (2010) states that in America alone, between 50,000 and 70,000 incidents of child abuse and neglect occur yearly. De Francis (2009) also reports that in London. 10,000 children are severally battered, 5,000 to 7,500 sexually abused, 1,000 neglected every year. Gesinde (2007) notes that accurate statistics on child abuse in Nigeria are currently unavailable. However, its existence has been reported by Ifeyinwa (2002), Dunapo (2000) and Bukoye (2000). Thus, in Nigeria, the prevalence of  child abuse appears higher  than it does in the United States of America. Britain is reported by Wisdom (2007) as having the lowest figures of child abuse and neglect among  the first world nations.

            Child abuse is defined in various ways by various people. The royal college of Psychiatrists (2004) asserts that child abuse is a term when an adult harms a child or young person under the age of 18. Wisdom (2007) defines it as the physical, psychological or sexual maltreatment to a child’s physical, moral or mental well-being. It also means physical abuses, sexual abuse and neglect which may result in bruises, broken bones, permanent physical of developmental impairment, and emotional trauma or death. The African network for the prevention and projection against child abuse and neglect (ANPPCAN) (2009) defines abuse as the unintended as well as intended acts and to danger the physical, emotional, moral and educational welfare of the child. Chalk, Gibbons and Scarnpa (2002) are of view that when child abuse occurs with child neglects, they are collectively called child maltreatment.

The media, particularly the broadcast media, have been part of the campaign against child abuse. If that is so, it is probable that the electronic media in the state have also been part of the campaign and would probably have some kinds of influence on the audience especially the people of Eket. It is on this note that the study out to ascertain the influence of the broadcast media on the campaign against child abuse in Eket Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

1.1       The History of Eket Local Government Area            

            Eket is the second largest city in Akwa Ibom StateNigeria. The name also refers to the indigenous ethnic group of the region and to their language. The city itself, an industrial city that in recent years has become a conurbation engulfing separate villages, has a population of over 500,000, while the urban area which covers Okon, Idua, Afaha Eket,  has a combined population of over 364,489, the second largest urban population in Akwa Ibom state.

Eket is popularly known as Idung Mfianwe, this name anchored on two major reason: first there is a town in Switzerland called Eket. This buttressed the fact that the first person to write on Eket was a Swiss Nationale. Second Eket was the hub of political and economic activities just like Calabar and Lagos. This led to the heavy presence to white colonial administrator and businessmen in Eket. In fact, there is an elevated land inhabited by the whites, which is referred to as Alod Okokoro or Abod Afianwe located at Ikot Ibiok because of this long interaction with the white men, Eket people neat and knowledgeable and thus attracted in name Ndito Mfianwe. Eket people are very enterprising, sociable, accommodated and hospitable. They are a special breed of people imbued with love and bounded by strong ties of common aspiration.

            Eket has existed as an Administrative Headquarter for more than one hundred (100) years. When the then Head of State, Col. Yakubu Gowon created 12 state in 1967, Eket became one of the ten (10) Division in the then Southern Eastern State. And with the 1976 Local Government Reforms, Eket became one of then 301 Local Government Area in Nigeria.

            The people of Eket are believed to have migrated from Cameroon during the Great Movement of the Bantu Stock of African. The migration brought the people to the location around the mouth of Cross River, which the claim as their first settlement with the Oron people along the estuary of Cross River. The movement continued along the coast into Qua Iboe River Territory, their present location.

            Eket people had early contacted with outside world long before the slave trade era. In 1850, European Trading Company like United Africa Company (UAC), Paterson Zochonis (PZ) and GB Ollivant, French and German trading stores were established in Eket. And in 1887 Rev. Samuel Alexander Bill landed at Upenekang (Ekang’s place, which was then a fishing settlement in Eket) by sea and established Qua Iboe church of Nigeria, and converted Eket people to Christianity.

Although Eket is one of those communities that embraced Christianity early, traditional religious practices are still prevalent such as the Supreme God (Abasi Anyong) some people still believed in and worship deities (Edoho, Abasi Isong).            

1.2       Statement of the Problem

            On a daily basis, children are seen hawking various kinds of wares along busy streets. At times they do so or when it is drizzling some of the children are sent out to the streets, motor parks or market with heavy loads immediately after school to hawk. Sometime they are instructed not to return home until whatever they have to sell is exhausted. This they do even late in the evening every day, before they will be retired homes obviously tried and worn out. Parents and guardians are known to beat up their children, at times so severely as to cause bodily harm and injuries. It is noteworthy to mention  that, Eket is a reverine area, and tends to be offering sea routes for the trafficking of  children across Nigeria’s borders using the water ways.


All this happens in spite of the campaign in the broadcast media against child abuse. Is it that the people of Eket are not exposed to these media campaigns in a way that could influence the people? This has given rise to this study in order to ascertain the influence of the broadcast media on the campaign against child abuse in Eket Local Government Area.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

            This study hopes to achieve the following objectives:

1.      Assess the level of exposure of residents of Eket to broadcast media campaign against child abuse in Eket Local Government Area:

2.      Ascertain the attitude of the people of Eket towards the campaign against child abuse in Eket Local Government Area:

3.      Find out if the broadcast media campaign against child abuse has any influence on the people of Eket Local Government Area:

4.      Determine the nature of the influence of the broadcast media campaign against child abuse on the people of Eket Local Government Area:


1.4     Research Questions

            The study has the following research questions:

1.      What is the level of exposure of the people of Eket Local Government Area to the broadcast media campaign against child abuse?

2.      What are the attitudes of the people of Eket Local Government Area towards the broadcast media campaign against child abuse?

3.      Does broadcast media campaign against child abuse have any influence on the people of Eket Local Government Area?

4.      What is  the nature of influence of the broadcast media campaign against child abuse on the people of Eket Local Government Area?

1.5     Research Hypothesis

Hi      Broadcast Campaign as no effect on Child Abuse in Eket Local Government Area.


Ho     Broadcast Campaign as a positive effect on Child Abuse in Eket Local Government Area.


Hi      The degree of Broadcast Campaign on Child Abuse  does not determined a positive outcome.


Ho     The degree of Broadcast Campaign on Child Abuse is determine factor for positive result.


1.6     Justification  of the Study

            Findings of this study will be beneficial in the following ways should the findings show that people have little or no exposure; the authorities can intensify the campaign, diversifying their strategies to get to their target.

            Findings should find out if their messages get to the right persons, if so they can sustain; if not do a self-assessing and re-strategies.

            From the findings, media should determine if the audience understand their message or not and therefore take appropriate action.

            Findings should add to the body of knowledge on the subject and serves as reference to the future researchers on the subject.

            Since Eket is about the same as other Local government Areas in Akwa Ibom State and Nigeria, the findings could be generalized for other Local Government Areas in the country.

1.7       Delimitations of the Study

            This study is restricted to an investigation of the influence of broadcast media campaign against child abuse in Eket Local Government Area. Hence, it does not involve any other issues except child abuse. Only two broadcast media are used for the study. These are Nigerian Television Authority (NTA) and Akwa Ibom Broadcasting corporation (AKBC).

            The audience for this study are parents and care givers in Eket Local Government Area.

1.8       Limitations of the Study

            Like all human endeavours, the process of carrying out this study was not smooth sailing. It had its limitation. One constraint that dragged out the work was respondent’s resentment to answering questions. This limitation did not necessarily restrict the finding of this study as concerted effort was made to persuade them that it was simply for the purpose of academics.

            Another limitation was the failure of some respondents to complete and return the questionnaire for this work. However, the copies of the questionnaire not returned were few and therefore insignificant to affect the generalization of the results of this study.

1.9       Definition of Terms

Child: Child means a person under the age of sixteen years (Section 277 of the Akwa Ibom State Child Right law, 2008).

Child Abuse: Child abuse means harming a child in a physical, sexual or emotional, psychologically and neglect.

Broadcast Campaign: The message/action transmitted by media houses in Akwa Ibom State.

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