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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007133

No of Pages: 52

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Ethanol and biomass production from riped banana peels were undertaken using palm wine yeasts and Aspergillus niger. Riped banana peels were processed and its sugar content was determined to be below 8% before it was optimized to about 21%, it was separately inoculated with Aspergillus niger and palm wine yeasts and allowed to ferment for eleven days during which the quality characteristics, ethanol and biomass production were monitored on 48 hourly basis. Obtain results show variations between the fermentation dynamics of the two organisms in the both cases, temperature fermented between 300c and 320c while pH produced from 6.2 to 2.1 with variations only in the first 5 days. The acidity increased from 0.16% to 2.18% in Aspergillus niger fermented liquor. While, the specific gravity also reduced from 1.18 to 0.46 in both cases while total solid reduced from 16.80% to 1.66% in Aspergillus niger fermented liquor and 16.90% to 1.73% in palm wine yeasts fermented liquor. Sugar concentration was about the same used in both where reduction in sugar content ranged from 21.20% to 2.69% and 21.30% to 2.78% in the liquors. Biomass production was slightly higher in Aspergillus niger fermented liquor 1.19% to 0.70 than in the palm wine yeasts fermented liquor 1.16 to 0.69 as recorded on the 9th day but both reduced slightly at the end having 1.20% and 1.16% respectively. The quality of ethanol produced was 9.74% and 10.74% with Aspergillus niger fermented liquor and palm wine fermented liquor. It was observed that the palm wine yeasts fermented banana peels had slightly higher ethanol yield than the Aspergillus niger fermented one while the later had slightly higher biomass yield in all, the use of banana peels for bioethanol and biomass production was successful. And can help in converting waste (banana peels) to useful products (alcohol and singe cell proteins Biomass) while what happened in that of palm wine yeast is lower than that of Aspergillus niger.


Title                                                                         Pages

Title Page                                                                                                                                 i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                               iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   v

List of Tables                                                                                                                          ix

List of Figures                                                                                                                         x

Abstract                                                                                                                                    xi

CHAPTER ONE                                                                                                                    1

1.0       Introduction                                                                                                                 1

1.1       Aims and objectives                                                                                                   3

CHAPTER TWO                                                                                                                   4

2.0       Literature Review                                                                                                       4

2.1       Bioethanol production                                                                                               4

2.2       Countries known for bioethanol production                                                          4

2.3       Synergy between ethanol and gasoline                                                                   5

2.4       Need for biofuel/bioethanol                                                                                     5

2.5       The advantages of bioethanol                                                                                  6

2.6       Biomass production using palm wine yeasts                                                         7

2.7       How ethanol is made                                                                                                  8

2.8       Microorganisms used                                                                                                 11

CHAPTER 3                                                                                                                           13

3.0       Materials and Methods                                                                                              13

3.1       Materials                                                                                                                      13

3.2       Methods                                                                                                                       13

3.2.1   Samples Preparation                                                                                                  13

3.2.2   Determination of Sugar contents                                                                             13

3.2.3   Media preparation SDA                                                                                             14

3.2.4   Optimization of substrate                                                                                          15

3.3       Isolation of palm wine yeasts                                                                                   15

3.4       Isolation of Aspergillus niger                                                                                   16

3.5       Determination of total solids                                                                                    17

3.5.1   Determination temperature                                                                                       17

3.5.2   pH                                                                                                                                 18

3.5.3   specific gravity determination James                                                                      18

3.5.4   Titratable acidity                                                                                                        19

3.5.5   Determination of biomass                                                                                         19

CHAPTER FOUR                                                                                                                  20

4.0       Results                                                                                                                          20

CHAPTER FIVE                                                                                                                   33

5.0       Discussion, conclusion and Recommendation                                                      33

5.1       Discussion                                                                                                                   33

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                  35

5.3       Recommendation                                                                                                        36

REFERENCES                                                                                                                       37

APPENDICES                                                                                                                        41



                                                          Title                                                                 Pages

1:        Physiochemical characteristic of banana peels                                      11

2:        Change in phytochemical characteristics of fermenting banana peel

using palm wine yeasts                               .                                               23

3:        Change in phytochemical characteristics of fermenting banana peel

using Aspergillus niger                                                                               24                   




                                                          Title                                                                 Pages

1:                    Changes in temperature during the fermentation period.                      25

2:                    Changes in pH during the fermentation period                           26

3:                    variation in the titratable acidity during the fermentation                    27

4:                    variation in the specific gravity of the fermentation period     28

5:                    changes in the total solids during the fermentation period                   29

6:                    changes in the sugar (Brix) content of the fermenting substrate                                              during the fermentation period                                                      30

7:                    Quantity of the production of Biomass during the fermentation                                             period                                                                                                 31

8:                    Alcohol Production from Banana peels using Aspergillus niger                                             and pal wine yeasts                                                                          32



1.0       Introduction

Energy is an important asset to life. Energy is even more better when it is in the renewable form. Renewable energy is now capturing a good share of the worldwide headlines because of concerns about declining supplies of fossil fuels, multiplying population and industrialization thereby boosting the ever-increasing demand of fuels (Snehal, et al., 2014). Energy plays a vital role in the development of any nation. However, that development increases the pollution levels. Recycling and utilization have become major concern of developing nations (Alula et al, 2016). The overall wellbeing of the world, industrial competitiveness and the function of society are all dependent on safe, sustainable and affordable energy. Energy provides essential power for almost all human activities. It provides services for cooking, heating, lighting, health, food production and storage, education (Harmsen et al., 2010).

Bioethanol (ethanol, ethyl alcohol) is the most widely employed liquid biofuel which is used as a fuel or as a gasoline enhancer (Paulova et al., 2015). It is important to note that according to Alula et al., 2016 ethanol has a higher oxygen content than other liquid biofuels, a smaller amount of additive is required. The increased percentage of oxygen allows a better oxidation of the gasoline hydrocarbons with the consequent reduction in the emission of C0 and aromatic compounds. (Thangavelu et al., 2014 and Mbajiuka et al., 2014).

Biofuels according Itelima et al., 2013 are generally produced by fermentation of agricultural wastes, fruit wastes, municipal and industrial water using saccharomyces cerevisave (Baker’s yeasts) as food for the microorganisms. The complexity of the production process depends on the feed stock (Raikar, 2012). The ability to turn these wastes into useful material, must be encouraged. The recycling and utilization of solid wastes are currently major challenge falling most developing countries and these has led to more and more environmental degradation thereby given rise to problems of how to tackle them.

Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood and other organic matter. Burning biomass releases carbon emissions, biomass most often refers to plants or plant based materials that are not used for food or feed and are specifically called lignocellulosic biomass (Sun and Cheng, 2002). As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly through combustion to produce heat, or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuels.

Sun and Cheng (2002) had reported that ethanol also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol is a flammable tasteless, colourless, mildy toxic alcohol having a fairly distinguishable odour. It is the same alcohol found in alcoholic beverages and is used alternatively for industrial purposes as well as transportation fuel. As a biofuel, ethanol is produced most commonly from corn and sugarcane feedstocks. It has the potential to be produced from woody biomass feedstocks.

Ethanol is by no means a new alcohol. The use of ethanol by human’s dates back to prehistoric times when the substance was largely consumed as a beverage. It was not until the early to middle 1800s, however, that ethanol was first dissected as a compound and prepared synthetically (Carlos et al., 2007). Ethanol as a fuel, was used in lamps during the civil war era but a Liquor tax placed on ethanol to help fund the war made the fuel costly compared to kerosene and other fuels. In 1960s and 1970s, interest in fuel ethanol was stimulates due to increase in demand by many nations. Hill et al (2006) reported that corn was the major feedstock for ethanol, as octane enhancers, ethanol and its derivatives ethyl lert-butyl ether actually increase the efficiency of gasoline burned in internal combustion engine.

1.1       Aim and Objectives

Ø  To convert waste (banana peels) to useful products (ethanol) using palmwine yeasts and Aspergillus niger.

The objectives of these work are;

Ø  To produce bioethanol using palm wine yeasts and Aspergillus niger

Ø  To produce Biomass using palm wine yeasts and Aspergillus niger

Ø  To know alcoholic content of the ethanol produce


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