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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007118

No of Pages: 46

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Ethanol and microbial biomass were produced from mixed fruit peels (banana, pineapple, paw-paw, orange and water melon) using palm wine yeasts. These peels were washed, dried and ground into powder, before being used for fermentation by inoculating the substrate with palm wine yeasts for 11 days. Initially the sugar (brix) content of the mixed fruit peels powder was found to be 6.2% before it was optimized to 20.63% in a submerged fermentation jar and then inoculated with the yeasts isolated from palm wine; and allowed to ferment for 11 days. The fermentation profile showed that the pH decreased from 6.10 to 2.60. Total solid decrease from 18.66% to 4.67%, specific gravity decrease from 1.16 to 1.08 and sugar reduce from 20.63% to 1.75% in contrast, titratable acidity increased from 0.52% to 2.03% biomass grow from 0.67g/l and ethanol increase from 0.55% to 8.96% as the fruit yield. It was observed that there is possibility of increasing the biomass and ethanol yield if proper fermentation environment is created. However the peels demonstrated potentials as good sources of both biomass and ethanol. This will be useful in converting waste (mixed fruits peels) lettered in the environment into useful products (Alcohol and single cell protein from biomass).



Title Page                                                                                                                               i          

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgment                                                                                                                   iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   v

List of Figures                                                                                                                         vii

Abstract                                                                                                                                  viii


1.0       INTRODUCTION                                                                                                    1

1.2       Aims and Objectives                                                                                                   3

1.2.1    The main aim of the study                                                                                          3

1.2.2    Objective of the study                                                                                                            3



2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                                       4

2.1       Fermentation of Mixed Fruit Peels in Alcohol Production                                        4

2.2       Alcohol Production from Mixed Fruit Peels using Palm Wine Yeasts                       4

2.3       Biomass Production from Waste Products                                                                 8

2.3.1    Sources of Biomass                                                                                                     9

2.3.2    Biomass Conversion                                                                                                   11 Thermal conversions                                                                                                   11 Chemical conversion                                                                                                   12

2.3.4    Biochemical conversion and Uses                                                                              13

2.3.5 Electrochemical Conversion                                                                                          14

2.3.6    Environmental effects of Biomass                                                                              14



3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS                                                                            16

3.1       Materials Used                                                                                                            16

3.2       Source of Materials                                                                                                     16

3.3       Sample Preparation                                                                                                     16

3.3.1    Determination of Sugar Content                                                                                17

3.3.2    Media Preparation SDA                                                                                             17

3.3.3    Optimization of Substrate                                                                                           18

3.3.4    Isolation of Palm Wine Yeasts                                                                                   18

3.3.5    Determination of Total Solids                                                                                    19

3.3.6    Determination of Temperature                                                                                    19

3.3.7    pH                                                                                                                               20

3.3.8    Specific Gravity Determination                                                                                  20

3.3.9    Titrable Acidity                                                                                                           20

3.3.10  Determination of Biomass                                                                                          21

3.3.11  Determination/measurement of the alcoholic content                                    21





4.0       RESULTS                                                                                                                 23



5.0       DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                   33

5.1       Discussion                                                                                                                   33

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                                  34

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                                      34











S/N                              TITLES                                                                                      PAGES

1:                     Sketch of 10 fold serial dilution of palm wine samples prior to

                        Inoculation                                                                                                      18

1:                     Changes in the specific gravity of the fermentation period                            25

2:                     Changes in the sugar content during the fermentation period sugar

                        Content                                                                                                           26

3:                     Alcohol yield during the fermentation period                                                            27

4:                     Production of Biomass during the fermentation period                                 28

5:                     Changes in pH during the fermentation period                                              29

6:                     Changes in temperature of fermenting time                                                   30

7:                     Changes in the total titrable acidity during the fermentation period              30

8:                     Changes in the total solid during the fermentation period                             31






The rapid growth of industries and technological advancement in the world call for development in the chemical sector. The production of industrial chemicals will enhance the economic progress of any nation. Ethanol, one of the important industrial chemicals, can be produced extensively from biomass such as mixed fruit peels (Chang et al., 2008).

The main constituents of this class of crop by-product are cellulose and hemicelluloses, making them lignocelluloses that can be excellent energy sources (Cowling, 2006).

The practice of mechanized farming has led to extensive discharge of agricultural wastes that have had negative effects on the environment. The utilization of such wastes has been a source of concern to many researchers (Amosun, 2008).

 Ethanol is one such chemical that is used as a solvent for chemicals. Ethanol is used as an intermediate in the production of liquid detergents. It is also used in the manufacture of drugs, plastics, polishes, plasticizers, perfumes, cosmetics, rubbers, accelerators, and cellulose nitrate. It is further used as an anti-freeze. Ethanol produced from regenerable sources is an attractive petrochemical feedstock in petroleum for poor countries (Gordon et al., 2009).

Ethanol is produced from palm wine by fermentation process (Harris, 2003). Fermentation is one of the oldest processes known to man, and it is used in making a variety of products including foods, flavorings, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and chemicals. Ethanol is made from a variety of products such as grain, molasses, fruit, cobs, and shell; its production, excluding that of beverages, has been declining since the 1930s because of the low cost (Othman, 2007). In 1975, only 76×106L of proof industrial ethanol were produced by fermentation compared to 7.95×106L by synthesis. During 1974, Nigeria was spending N 2 million annually on spirits and alcohol (Madrella et al., 2009). This expenditure represents a big market for a country like Nigeria, with a population of over 120 million people. A crude estimate of the total market for alcoholic beverages in Nigeria is about 2,500,500 L/year. Therefore, provision must be made to balance the shortfall to complement the imported, hence the need for this work. Nevertheless, the production of chemical feedstock from biomass making use of locally sourced material that is very cheap and within reach can be accomplished (Eweke et al., 2009). The energy crisis necessitates studying and discovering new processes involved in the production of renewable compounds as alternative energy sources among which fermentation of ethanol using renewable resources represents a significant alternative. In fact, ethanol is being widely investigated as a renewable fuel source because, in many respects, it is comparable to gasoline fuel (Othman, 2007).

This situation has led many countries to use ethanol as a fuel especially from food crop. In many countries, sugarcane resource can be used to produce a variety of commercial products that can be marketed domestically, regionally, and internationally. In economic and environmental terms, the three products that have special significance are sugar, ethanol, and electricity (Othman, 2007).

Developing countries, through its potential in developing large sugarcane production, can develop a proper strategy of using ethanol as a fuel especially from cane sources. Yeast alcohol is the most valuable product for the biotechnology industry with respect to both value and revenue (Harris, 2003).

Approximately 80% of ethanol is produced by anaerobic fermentation of various sugar sources by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the technology has undergone significant improvements during the last decade although availability of raw materials and proper design of fermentation process are the major limitations causing reduced alcohol yields and quality. In view of the importance of alcohol as an alternative for liquid fuel, several investigations in ethanol fermentations are currently reported (Harris, 2003).


1.2.1    The main aim of the study is:

To produce biomass and alcohol from mixed fruit peels using palm wine yeasts.

1.2.2    Objective of the study is:

i)        To ground and mix properly different fruits (banana, pineapple, paw-paw, orange and water melon) and beef up the sugar (brix) content to fermentable substrate

ii)      To isolate and purify palm wine yeasts from palm wine

iii)    To ferment the substrate for 11 days so as to produce alcohol and biomass

iv)    To measure the fermentation profile such as pH, total solid, specific gravity, sugar contents, TTA, alcohol and biomass during the fermentation period.



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