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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007431

No of Pages: 26

No of Chapters: 5

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This study looked at the water quality of borehole water in malali Water parameters analyzed were turbidity. Zn, Pb, Cu dissolved oxygen, pH, heavy metals, TDS. The data obtained were used to develop Water Quality across the 3 sampling points in malali. It is recommended that pollution be controlled at the source.

Man’s activities on the environment often results in pollution and degradation of water bodies. Water bodies must therefore be jealously guided and protected from being polluted, which will affect water quality and availability for desired usage. Causes of water quality impairment are urban and rural storm water runoff, inadequate waste water treatment, nutrient entrophication, atmospheric deposition and acid rain, pollutant in sediments and fish, and nuisance aquatic weed growth and invasive species. Other factors include unhygienic disposal and inadequate treatment of human and livestock wastes, indecent management and treatment of industrial residues, inappropriate agricultural practices and unsafe solid waste discharge. Suggested strategies to combat water quality problems which should form the basis of policy solution for improving water quality include: (i) prevention of pollution; (ii) treatment of polluted water; (iii) safe use of waste water; and (iv) restoration and protection of ecosystem. It is recommended that our water bodies and the environment in general should be protected through appropriate legislation guidelines and public literacy campaign and mass education to sensitize, educate and make the people a fully environmentally literate society. Taking these steps internationally, nationally and locally will mean better water quality for our present society and future generation.


Contents                                                                                                                     page

Cover page                                                                                                                  i

Declaration                                                                                                                  ii

Certification                                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgment                                                                                                       v

Table of content                                                                                                          vi

Abstract                                                                                                                      vii

                                                CHAPTER ONE

1.0  Introduction

1.1 statement of problem

1.2 Aims and Objectives

                                                CHAPTER TWO

2.0  literature review

2.1 Significance of selected water quality parameters

`                                               CHAPTER THREE

3.0  materials

3.1 Methods

3.1.0`Sample Collection

3.1.1 Sample Preparation

3.1.2 Washing of Glassware

3.1.3 Digestion of Water Sample

3.1.4 Preparation of Reagents

3.1.5 Determination of PH

3.1.6 Determination of Turbidity

3.1.7 Determination of Alkalinity

3.1.8 Determination of Dissolved Solid



4.0 Result


                                                CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Conclusion














Water is the most significant nutrient that is indispensable to the survival of humanity because it is involved in all body functions and makes up about 75% of total body weight (Shryer, 2007; Mack and Nadel, 2011; OffeiAnsah, 2012). About 60% percent of human body is water as life began in water and life is nurtured with water (Amoo et al., 2018). Despite the need to ensure sufficient water quality, one of the biggest developmental challenges these days is ensuring sufficient water quality (Gundry et al., 2003). The need for water in the day to day activities of man includes; cooking, washing, drinking and other industrial activities (Akpoborie et al., 2008). The two major sources of water whose quality are assessed by scientists are surface water and ground water. It has been reported by Haruna et al. (2008); Okeola et al. (2010) that surface water is generally poor in quality, while ground water is more reliable for domestic and agricultural irrigation needs. Berthold (2010) submitted that boreholes and wells change the natural flow field and create a path that opens up an additional possibility of heat and mass transfer between rock, aquifers and surrounding atmosphere. Many authors (Sunnudo-Wilhelmy and Gill, 1999; Egwari and Aboaba, 2002; Lu, 2004) have attributed the contamination of borehole water to indiscriminate waste disposal, poor agricultural practices, poor well construction, proximity of septic tanks to boreholes, siting of pit latrines and graves near boreholes.

 Potable water is an essential ingredient for good health and the socio-economic development of man (Udom et al., 2002) but it’s lacking in many societies. Clean water is priceless and a limited resource that man has begun to treasure only recently after decades of pollution and waste (Sinderberg, 2003). World population cannot be sustained without access to safe water (Brainstein, 2007). It is therefore important to conjunctly consider both water quality and quantity in water resources management (Xinghui et al., 2009). Borehole water become unsuitable for domestic use as a resource due to contamination that makes it unfit for many purposes (Agbaire & Oyibi, 2009). The aim of water quality management is usually to minimize the health risks associated with either direct or indirect use of water (Udom et al., 2002). Standards and guidelines in water quality stem from the need to protect human health (Minh et al., 2011)

Borehole water serves as the major source of drinking water in the local population of Nigeria. Since only few can afford and rely on purified and treated bottled water for consumption. Chapman (1996), stress the importance of groundwater as a source of potable water in Africa and constitutes about two thirds of the freshwater resources of the world. Ground water provides a reasonably constant supply for domestic use, livestock and irrigation. Carlow et al. (2011) stated this source can buffer the effects of rainfall variability across seasons. In many arid and semi-arid areas of Africa boreholes water is a mean of coping with water deficiencies in areas where rainfall is scarce or highly seasonal and surface water is extremely limited (Agbaire & Oyibi, 2009). Contamination of water bodies has increasingly become an issue of serious environmental concern. In the case of underground waters like bore holes, this may arise from construction process of a borehole, drilling fluids, chemical casings and other materials which may find their way into the well thereby polluting the water (Angulo etal., 1997). An open well during the construction stage can also be a direct route for contaminants from the surface to the aquifer thereby providing an ideal opportunity for chemical casing and bacteriological pollution to occur (Brainstein, 2007). In most parts of Nigeria, access to portable water is strongly limited by cost, availability, nearness and other factors indicating that consumers are compelled to accept what they can afford or what is available. Water assumed to be pure by the producers and consumers (commonly called sachet water) is the most available source of water to most citizens of Nigeria, including Kaduna State. Others have borehole water as the nearest alternative. Studies have shown that these sources can be enriched with wide varieties of contaminants and could threaten public health (Eddy and Ekop, 2007). For example, Omalu et al. (2011) reported that the presence of Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella sp., Streptococcus sp., and oocysts of Cryptosporidia sp in some sachet water within Nigeria. Similar findings were reported by Edema et al. (2011) on bacteriological quality of sachet water in some part of Nigeria (excluding Kaduna State).

Meanwhile, In Nigeria, various contaminants has been detected in water samples from different part of the country. Contamination of bore hole water has been reported for different parts of Nigeria (Abdullahi et al., 2013; Akinola et al., 2018; Ibe and Okpalenye, 2005; Joshiah et al., 22014; Onuorah et al., 2018; Uhuo et al., 2014; Ukpong and Okon, 2013). 

1.1 Statement of Problem

Water quality is a terminology used to depict the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water in relationship to a set of standards. Water quality is important because its uses covers virtually all corners of life, from personal human consumption to environmental and industrial application and even aquatic matter (Amund et al, 1991). In irrigation, water evaluation emphasis is on the chemical and physical characteristics of the water, and rarely are other factors considered important (Ayers et al, 1994). The quality of irrigation water is generally judged by its total salt concentration or electrical conductivity (EC), relative proportion of cations or sodium absorption ratio (SAR) and bicarbonate and boron content of water (Michael 1999).

Declining water quality has become a global issue of concern as human population grow, industrial and agricultural activities expand and climate change threatens to cause major alterations to the hydrological cycle. Water quality issues are complex and diverse and are deserving urgent global attention and action (UN – Water 2011). Both natural processes and human activities influence the quality of surface waters and ground water. The major sources of water pollution are from human settlement and industrial and agricultural activities. Negative factors related to these activities include unhygienic disposal and inadequate treatment of human and livestock wastes, indecent management and treatment of industrial residues, inappropriate agricultural practices and unsafe solid water discharge.

For example:

i)                    Over 80 percent of sewage in developing countries is discharge untreated directly into water bodies (UNICEF and WHO, 2008).

ii)                   Industries are responsible for dumping an estimated 300 – 400 million tones of heavy metals, solvent, toxic sludge and other wastes into water each year (UN – Water 2011).

iii)                Nitrates from agriculture are most common chemical contaminant in the world ground water aquifers (Morris et al, 2003 and Mahvi et al, 2005).

iv)                 In the united states of America, manures and pesticides from agriculture are the greatest source of water pollution (Revenga and Mock 2000, Faeth 2000). In almost all countries with major land salinization; water salinization is an accompanying problem. Major problems have been reported in Argentina, China, India, Sudan, and many countries in central Asia where more than 10 million hectares of irrigated land are salinized (Ghassemi et al, 1995).



AIM: water quality evaluation aims is to identify the sources of water pollution, contaminants and develop a strategy for a sustainable water source management, maintaining and promoting human health and other social and economic growth (carol et al. 2006)




·         To obtain quantitative information on the physical ,chemical, and biological characteristics of water via statistical sampling

·         To determine the pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, nutrient, temperature, heavy metals.



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