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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007332

No of Pages: 114

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The groundwater qualities of some settlements in four local government areas (Fagge, Dala, Ungogo and Gwale) in Kano State, Nigeria were determined. The study was based on the assessment of physicochemical parameters of groundwater (wells and boreholes) samples. Fourty groundwater samples, ten from each local government area were collected and analyzed for the following parameters: pH, electrical conductivity (EC), temperature, total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), salinity, chloride, turbidity, total hardness (T.H), alkalinity, phosphate (PO4), nitrate (NO3), sulphate (SO4), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb). Standard laboratory analysis were carried out to determine the concentration of these parameters and major comparisons were equally made with World Health Organization (WHO), Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) and Water Quality Index (WQI) standard ratings. The data showed variation of the investigated parameters as follows: pH (5.11 – 7.40), temperature (27.10 – 31.83) ºC, EC (419 – 4870) µS/cm, TS (268.10 – 2776.10) mg/l, TDS (226.33 – 2743) mg/l, TSS (23.07 – 61.24) mg/l, salinity (0.15 – 2.33) ppt, chloride (65.08 – 970.33) mg/l, turbidity (0.37 – 23.9) NTU, T.H (16 – 134.26) mg/l, alkalinity (16.27 – 89.50) mg/l, PO4 (3.65 – 55.59) mg/l, NO3 (5.25 – 33.27) mg/l, SO4 (25.06 – 446) mg/l, Na (0.006 – 0.070) mg/l, Mg (0.004 – 0.889) mg/l, Cd (0.004 – 0.055) mg/l, Cr (0.038 – 0.096) mg/l and Pb (0.022 – 0.14) mg/l. The concentration of some of the investigated parameters were above the standard quality for drinking water. Lead, cadmium and chromium for instance, were found to exceed 0.01mg/l, 0.003mg/l and 0.005mg/l respectively which is the WHO maximum permissible limits. This is as a result of improper discharge of untreated effluents in the environment which led to the contamination of groundwater sources. It is therefore recommended that proper and constant monitoring of disposal processes for industrial as well as domestic effluents in the study area is employed to guarantee safe water for drinking and domestic purposes.


Title page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Declaration                                                                                                                              iii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iv

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                  v

Table of Contents                                                                                                      

List of Tables                                                                                                             

List of Figures



CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION                                                                         

1.1       Background of the Study                                                                                           1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                                           2

1.3       Aim and Objectives                                                                                                    3

1.4       Justification of the Study                                                                                           3

1.5       Scope and Limitations                                                                                                            4



2.1       Groundwater contamination in Kano and other environs                                         5

2.2       Water                                                                                                                        14

2.3       Groundwater                                                                                                              16

2.3.1    Ground water occurrence                                                                                          16

2.3.2 Groundwater pollution/contamination                                                                           17

2.4       Water Quality Index                                                                                                   18

 2.5      Physicochemical Parameters                                                                                       20

2.5.1    pH                                                                                                                               20

2.5.2    Electrical conductivity                                                                                                21

2.5.3    Temperature                                                                                                                22

2.5.4    Alkalinity                                                                                                                    23

2.5.5    Salinity                                                                                                                        23

2.5.6    Turbidity                                                                                                                     24

2.5.7    Total hardness                                                                                                             24

2.5.8    Total dissolved solid (TDS)                                                                                        25

2.5.9    Total suspended solids (TSS)                                                                                     26

2.5.10  Biological oxygen demand (BOD)                                                                             26

2.5.11  Nitrate                                                                                                                         27

2.5.12  Phosphate                                                                                                                    27

2.5.13  Sulphate                                                                                                                      28

2.6.      Metallic Pollutants                                                                                                      29

2.6.1    Sodium                                                                                                                        29

2.6.2    Magnesium                                                                                                                  29

2.6.3    Heavy metals and their effects                                                                                   30 Cadmium                                                                                                                    31 Lead                                                                                                                            32 Chromium                                                                                                                   32

2.7       Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Analysis                                                      33

2.7.1    Theory of atomic absorption spectrophotometer                                                        33

CHAPTER 3: MATERIALS AND METHODS                                                               35

3.1       Study Areas                                                                                                                35

3.2       Sampling                                                                                                                     38

3.3       Sampling Sites                                                                                                39

3.4       Methodology                                                                                                              41

3.4.1    Determination of pH                                                                                                   41

3.4.2    Determination of electrical conductivity (EC)                                                           41

3.4.3    Determination of temperature                                                                                     41

3.4.4    Measurement of solids (APHA, 2016)                                                                       41 Total solids                                                                                                                  42 Dissolved solids                                                                                                          42 Suspended solids                                                                                                        43

3.4.5    Measurement of salinity                                                                                             43

3.4.6    Determination of chloride                                                                                           43

3.4.7    Determination of turbidity                                                                                          43

3.4.8    Determination of total hardness                                                                                 44       

3.4.9    Determination of alkalinity                                                                                         44

3.4.10  BOD determination                                                                                                    44

3.4.11  Determination of sulphate                                                                                          45

3.4.12  Determination of nitrate                                                                                             46

3.4.13  Determination of phosphate                                                                                       47

3.5       Digestion of Water Sample                                                                                         47

3.5.1    Procedure for Water Digestion                                                                                  48

3.6       Statistical Analysis                                                                                                      48

CHAPTER 4: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                                49

4.1       Results                                                                                                                        49

     4.2      Presentation of overall means in multiple bar charts                                                   80

     4.2.1   pH, salinity, turbidity and biological oxygen demand                                                80

     4.2.2   Temperature, total suspended solids, total hardness, alkalinity and chloride             81

                   4.2.3   Electrical conductivity, total hardness and total dissolved solids                                           82

       4.2.4  Phosphate, nitrate and sulphate                                                                                    84

       4.2.5  Sodium, magnesium, cadmium, chromium and lead.                                                   84


CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                            86

5.1     Conclusion                                                                                                                         86

5.2     Recommendations                                                                                                             86









3.1       Sampling sites and code names for Fagge L.G.A                                                      39

3.2       Sampling sites and code names of Dala L.G.A                                                          39

3.3       Sampling sites and code names of Ungogo L.G.A                                                    40

3.4       Sampling sites and code names of Gwale L.G.A                                                       40

4.1    Mean    standard deviation concentrations of physicochemical parameters for

          Fagge LGA                                                                                                                   50

4.2   Mean    standard deviation concentrations of metals for Fagge LGA                         51

4.3    Mean    standard deviation concentrations of physicochemical parameters for

           Dala LGA                                                                                                                    57

4.4   Mean    standard deviation concentrations of metals for Dala LGA  

4.5    Mean    standard deviation concentrations of physicochemical parameters for

         Ungogo LGA                                                                                                                 64

4.6   Mean    standard deviation concentrations of metals for Ungogo

         LGA                                                                                                                               65

4.7    Mean   standard deviation concentrations of physicochemical parameters for

         Gwale LGA                                                                                                                   71

4.8   Mean    standard deviation concentrations of metals for Gwale LGA                        72

4.9   Overall mean values and standard deviation of all the physicochemical parameters

        for the four local government areas compared with WHO and SON standards                        78

4.10 Overall mean values and standard deviation of all the metals for the four local

         government areas compared with WHO and SON standards.                                      79











3.1       Map of kano state showing the study areas                                                           36

                   3.2       Map showing the sampling sites                                                                            37

             4.1        Mean values of pH, salinity, turbidity and BOD                                                  80

              4.2       Mean values for temperature, total suspended solids, total hardness, alkalinity

                          and chloride                                                                                                            81

4.3       Means values of electrical conductivity, total solids and total dissolved

solids                                                                                                                         83

4.4       Mean values of phosphate, nitrate and sulphate.                                                      84

4.5       Means values for sodium, magnesium, cadmium, chromium and lead.                    86







        CHAPTER 1



Water is a liquid at ambient conditions, but it often co-exists on earth with its solid state being ice, and gaseous state being water vapour or steam (Ameyibor and Wiredu, 1991).

Human bodies are approximately 60% water, blood is at least 50% water and the human brain is made of 77% water (Stanistski et al., 2000). Water is a chemical substance essential to all forms of life. Nigeria is rich with large amount of groundwater resources. For instance, JICA (2014) estimated the total renewable groundwater resource potential in Nigeria to be 155.8 billion cubic metres per year (BCM/year). This resource is important in the social and economic life of the people in terms of domestic, industrial and agricultural use.

On a global scale, groundwater represents the world’s largest and most important source of fresh potable water and it is the most extracted raw material with withdrawal rates currently in the estimated range of 982 km3/year (Smith et al., 2016). Groundwater supplies most drinking water worldwide and about 70% of groundwater withdrawn is used for agriculture (Gleeson et al., 2016) and has been beneficial for meeting rural water demand in the Sub-Saharan Africa (MacDonald and Davies, 2005; Harvey, 2004). Due to the inability of governments to meet the ever-increasing water demand, most people in rural areas resort to groundwater sources such as boreholes as an alternative water source. Humans can abstract groundwater through a borehole, which is drilled into the aquifer for industrial, agricultural and domestic use. However, groundwater is vulnerable to pollution, which may degrade their quality.

Generally, groundwater quality varies from place to place, sometimes depending on seasonal changes (Trivede et al., 2010; Vaishali and Punila, 2013), the types of soils, rocks and surfaces through which it moves (Seth et al., 2014; Thivya et al., 2014). Naturally occurring contaminants are present in the rocks and sediments. As groundwater flows through the sediments, metals such as iron and manganese dissolve and are later found in high concentrations in the water (Moyo, 2013). Also, human activities can alter the natural composition of groundwater through the disposal of chemicals and microbial matter on the land surface and into soils, or through injection of wastes directly into groundwater. Industrial discharges (Govindarajan and Senthilnathan, 2014), urban activities, agriculture, groundwater plumage and disposal of waste (Bello et al., 2013) can affect groundwater quality. Pesticides and fertilizers applied to lawns and crops can accumulate and migrate to the water tables thus affecting both the physical, chemical and microbial quality of water. Therefore, the monitoring of groundwater quality is of paramount importance both in the developed and developing countries (Nash and McCall, 1994). The key to sustainable water resources is to ensure that the quality of water resources is suitable for their intended uses, while at the same time allowing them to be used and developed to a certain extent.


Contamination of drinking water by metals is a serious health risk for humans due to the ability of such metals to cause different kinds of diseases. Past studies on heavy metal contamination of drinking water sources in parts of Kano Metropolis have indicated concentrations of metals like Fe, Cr and Pb were above recommended levels (Sheshe and Magashi, 2014; Dabo and Saleh, 2017). This study focuses on the determination of some physicochemical parameters and concentrations of metals such as Cd, Cr, Na and Pb in groundwater (boreholes and wells) samples from Fagge, Dala, Ungogo and Gwale Local Government Areas of Kano State.


The aim of this research is to determine some physicochemical parameters and metals (Cd, Cr, Na and Pb) concentrations in groundwater (boreholes and wells) samples from four Local Government Areas of Kano State. The aim will be achieved with the following objectives:

a)        Collection of water samples from the four LGAs

b)        Determination of some physicochemical parameters

c)        Determination of metal concentrations using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Flame Photometry.

d)       Comparison of results with past studies and drinking water quality standards.


The quality of drinking water in Fagge, Dala, Ungogo and Gwale Local Government Areas of Kano State has become a major concern to the community. The widespread reports on pollutants in groundwater have increased in recent years and have resulted in increased public concern about the quality of groundwater. In addition, inhabitants are becoming increasingly dependent on groundwater which have doubtful water quality especially during the dry season. Most people depend on alternative water sources such as rainwater, hand-dug wells and boreholes constructed with doubtful water quality in the areas due to lack of standard treated water pipe borne water supply system. It is important that the quality of groundwater sources in the area is monitored on a continuous basis due to the potential health impacts on the population.


The study focuses on the determination of the concentration of some physicochemical parameters and heavy metals in groundwater samples from Fagge, Dala, Ungogo and Gwale Local Government Areas. A total of forty groundwater samples were collected, ten from each of the four local government areas. Analysis were carried out on the water samples using standard methods described by APHA (2016) and results were compared with similar studies carried out by other researchers and was also compared with guidelines recommended by WHO and SON (2017) for portable drinking water. Difficulties were encountered in the collection and transportation of the samples as some of the water samples were collected within residential areas. The study was also limited by lack of funds.


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