The level of some nutrient elements in Abuja surface water
were investigated for six months to determine the eutrophication profile and
make logical inference on the fate of surface water system in the nearest
future. Samplings were done monthly for a period of six months covering October
to March and standard methods were used for the measurement of some nutrients
constituting the indices of eutrophication. The results showed high levels of
microbial activities. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) showed high levels of
pollution which varied with time and velocity of water current. Other
parameters investigated were chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrate
concentration, total dissolved solid (TDS), conductivity, algae count,
temperature, pH, phosphate and potassium concentrations. Maximum and minimum
values of some eutrophication parameters in the sites were recorded as follows:
BOD ( Orozo 38mg/L- 7.37mg/L, Gidan Mangoro 31.2mg/L- 5.08mg/L, Nyanya
32.4mg/L- 10.05mg/L, Wuse 40.30mg/L- 7.007mg/L, Jabi 26.50mg/L- 3.10mg/L).
Similarly total dissolved solid maximum and minimum values in the sites were
given as Orozo 1222mg/L- 105.1mg/L, Gidan Mangoro 861.0mg/L-148.8mg/L, Nyanya
676.0mg/L- 127.6mg/L, Wuse 200.0mg/L- 86.2mg/L, Jabi 846.0mg/L-151.8mg/L. These
results point to eutrophication indicators in Abuja surface water system. The
results showed that the concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
may be significantly increased beyond their compensation level by the growing
human population in Abuja metropolis.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
Abbreviations, Definitions and Symbols
1.1 Causes of Eutrophication
1.1.1 Natural sources
1.1.2 Anthropogenic sources
1.2 Statement of Problem
1.3 Aims And
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.1 Algal bloom
2.1.2 Organic manure application
2.1.3 Water hyacinth invasion
2.1.4 Impact of erosion
2.2 Approaches to
Controlling Eutrophication and Water Loss
2.2.1 Nutrient control
and Eutrophication Profile
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Sampling Sites
Collection and Preservation
3.3 Measurement of
3.3.2 Measurement of total dissolved solid
3.3.3 Measurement of conductivity
3.3.4 Measurement of chemical oxygen demand (Titrimetric
3.3.5 Measurement of pH
3.3.6 Measurement of biological oxygen demand (Titrimetric
3.3.7 Measurement of potassium
3.3.8 Determination of nitrate (Colorimetric method)
3.3.9 Determination of phosphate
3.4 Principles of
Operation of Colorimeter DR/890
5.4 Chemical Oxygen Demand
5.7 Algae Count
5.8 pH Level
6.0 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
DEFINITIONS AND SYMBOLS
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
Total Dissolved Solid
Tetraoxosulphate (VI) Acid
Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate
milligram per liter
Nigerian Metrological Agency
Chemical Oxygen Demand
Geographical Information System
Eutrophication is the natural
process whereby a confined water body (e.g. lake or dam) ages with time due to
accumulation of silt or organic matter in the lake (Ademoroti, 1996).
A young lake is characterized
by low nutrient level and consequently low plant productivity and at this stage
is described as oligotrophic (few food) lake. The water body gradually acquires
inorganic and organic nutrient from catchment areas and these promote aquatic
growth and increased biological productivity causing the lake to become murky
with decaying organic matter and phytoplankton. The water body is said to be
eutrophic (well fed) and consequently, the decaying organic matter depletes its
available oxygen. Increase in the accumulation of silt and organic matter,
makes the water body shallower and sunlight penetrate slowly to the bottom,
making the water warmer. Plants take roots along the shallow edges and the lake
slowly transforms into a marsh or swamp which may eventually lead to dry land
Anthropogenic impact and
seasonal climatic changes have aggravated eutrophication in water bodies
worldwide. Advancement in science and technological innovation in agricultural
practices has resulted in increased usage of natural and synthetic manures rich
in phosphorus, potassium, and calcium in farming. These have accelerated the
natural process of eutrophication worldwide. Nations of the world are conscious
of the famous Malthusian economic theory and hence fight against this
detrimental prediction by increasing food production through the construction
of dams for irrigation and energy. Nations in arid regions are also making
efforts to conserve their existing water resources to
meet the increasing food demand
through water storage reservoirs to conserve and harness this precious resource
more efficiently. Such reservoirs and lakes are subject to several kinds of
degradation and losses through evaporation, inefficient storage and consumption
waste in addition to the growth of all kinds of aquatic organisms such as
plankton, insects, fish and angiosperms. These changes lead to the phenomenon
of eutrophication (Rashid and Anjum, 1985).
therefore causes progressive deterioration of water quality especially lakes
due to luxuriant growth of plants with the effect that the overall metabolism
of the water is affected (Richard, 1970).
A research carried out by Rashid and
Anjum (1985) showed that the presence of
Euglena, oscillatoria and Anabaena Spp indicate
high organic pollution responsible for eutrophication and this affects
the species of microinvertebrates and macrovertebrates including the species of
fish in the water. It was found that the predatory specie Notopterus hotopterus
was gradually increasing causing threat to the survival of some useful fish
in the water body. Eutrophication is therefore detrimental to crop
production, fish farming and provision of portable drinking water.
Eutrophic water bodies receive
large amount of aquatic plant nutrients relative to their surface area and
volume and have high production of aquatic plants (Fred and Ann, 1978).
Oligotrophic water bodies tend to be poorly fertilized and have low aquatic
plant production, mesotrophic water bodies receive moderate amount of aquatic
Thermocline is a term used in
describing the depth in a water body in which there is rapid change in
temperature with depth as a result of the division of the water body into
layers with different densities
(Fred and Ann 1978). These are the epilimnion the warmer and less dense surface
waters and also the hypolimnion which describes the cooler, more dense bottom
waters. The thermocline provides a barrier of mixing water between these two
layers and is normally present between early June to October in temperate water
bodies (Fred and Ann 1978). During this thermal stratification, waters of the
hypolimnion are isolated from the atmosphere by the thermocline and cannot
replenish their oxygen. Algae which have grown in this area died and decomposed
leading to reduction of oxygen at the bottom. In many eutrophic waters, this
depletion is sufficient to cause anoxic conditions (Zero dissolved oxygen) in
the hypolimnion (Fred and Ann 1978; Muir, 2001).
It was discovered that the river
Jordan which is currently the largest and longest river that flows into Israel
was under threat of extinction following eutrophication. Adequate measures were
taken to keep it alive for utility and consumption since major rivers in Israel
were contaminated by agriculture and industrial wastes which made the Jordan
River the only natural and clean river in the country (Shoshana, 2012).
Biodiversity of algal communities in the upper Jordan River formed as a result
of natural climatic and anthropogenic impact was used to predict the disastrous
1.1 CAUSES OF EUTROPHICATION
1.1.1 Natural Sources
Eutrophication can also be
described as the process of fertilization of natural waters (Fred and Ann,
1978). There is no place in Abuja where Eutrophication has been described as an
algal bloom. Nevertheless, there is the need to put drastic environmental
measures to prevent its occurrence in the near future. Any process which
favours the growth of aquatic
plants or plant life can lead
to eutrophication. Nutrients required for plant growth include sulphur,
calcium, magnesium ,sodium ,iron, zinc, copper etc. The major nutrients
required by plants are nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Nitrate-nitrogen is
most often obtained from urea. When urea is excreted by animals it hydrolyses
rapidly to ammonia which is then acted upon by the bacteria Nitrosomonas and is
oxidized to nitrite. Another bacterium called Nitrobacter oxidizes the nitrite
to nitrate which is available as plant nutrient (Ademoroti, 1996). The triple
bond of Nitrogen, N≡N present as N2
in the atmosphere can be broken by thunderstorm to make it soluble in water
during rain and all these form a natural process for nitrogen fixation into the
soil which can be washed along with sand and silt to cause eutrophication in
water body (Ababio 1990).
In stabilization ponds, nitrate
acts as an algal nutrient thereby reinforcing the symbiotic relationship
between algal and bacteria and this is the basis of wastewater purification in
facultative ponds (Ademoroti, 1996).
Hydrolysis of urea
NH2CONH2 + H2O → 2NH3 + CO2
Oxidation of ammonia by Nitrosomonas.
+ 76O2 + 5CO2
+ 52H2O + 54H+
Oxidation of nitrite by Nitrobacter.
+ 195O2 + 5CO2
+ NH3 + 2H2O
natural sources leading to eutrophication include rock weathering and erosion.
Erosion can transport clay, silt and plant nutrients such as calcium and
phosphorus in suspension into water bodies for eutrophication (Lathrop et al
1998). The nutrients available in an environment therefore also depend on the
topography (Likens, 1972).
1.1.2 Anthropogenic Sources
Human activities in urban and
rural areas have led to an increase in plant nutrients such as nitrogen,
phosphorus, and potassium through improper disposal of sewage rich in urea from
faeces and urine, food waste and other municipal waste products. The use of
detergents with branch chain hydrocarbon cannot be degraded by bacteria and
hence lead to the death of aquatic animals and subsequent enrichment of water
body with nitrogen. The use of detergents with optical brighteners for
aesthetic beauty of clothes has led to the enrichment of water bodies with
nitrogen because these optical brighteners and perfumes often contain chromophore
structure –N=N- to enhance red shift and desirable colour characteristics
Human agricultural practices
such as the use of organic and inorganic fertilizers have led to increase in
plant nutrients and consequently the phenomenon of eutrophication. Agricultural
run-off from irrigated farms and leaching of fertilizer to water bodies have
enormously increased these nutrients to favour the growth of algae (Lathrop,
1998). Nutrients from agricultural systems can pollute natural waters through
drainage water, soil
erosion and animal waste and
soil water, making these nutrients mobile and enhancing eutrophication (Eckert
1995; Gimba, 2011).
Developing nations of the world
are embracing industrialization to improve their economies and standard of
living and this trend has led to the production and discharge of various
contaminants to the aquatic environment. Fertilizer industries, detergent
industries, food industries among others discharge a lot of waste which can
find their ways into lakes, streams or rivers or even directly to the municipal
sewer system (Weibel, 1970).
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The increasing population
density in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, have resulted in
increasing discharge of domestic and industrial waste into water bodies. This
could trigger eutrophication and hence the need for continuous monitoring for
strategic planning in the FCT.
1.4 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aim of this research work is assess eutrophication
parameters in surface water bodies in Abuja.
objectives include among others to;
the physicochemical parameters of the surface water of the selected sites.
Determine the nutritional level of the surface water using standard
III. Investigate the level of algal
bloom in the selected sites.
IV. Correlate the algal bloom with
nutritional level of the water bodies.
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