Statistics is playing an
important role in virtually all aspect of human life. This role is used to analyze
a project, which is aimed at analyzing the rate of crime in Kuje-Abuja. This
analysis is meant for correction, up-dating, forecasting the future accordance
events. The objectives of the project are the criminal offences in Kuje. The
project comprises of five chapters; chapter one, contains the introduction of
the project and the historical background of Kuje Police Station also the aims
and objectives of the project. Chapter two contains the literature review and
the literature review is relevant to the project topic. Also, in same chapter
two, the statistical tools used will be discussed, with necessary information
on categories of crimes, chapter three, focus on the methodology and data
presentation that is method of data collection and also source of data and
problem encountered during collection of data. Chapter four is based on
analysis data collected achieving the aims set in 1.3 chapter under general
aims and specific objectives and also applying the statistical tools relevant
to the project topic. Chapter five, its including findings, conclusion and
recommendation, bibliography of what have been discussing in the whole project.
Finally, I hope that Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic library, department of
Mathematics and Statistics library and also all the members of the institute
will have something to comprehend and learn out of this project, something
useful to read as a source of data and inspiration.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
and specific objectives
of Data Collection
The increasing desire of the government and
civilization to improve the maintenance of law and order and to engage in crime
prevention, has led to the search for data on all aspect of crime. This will
enable the government to know whether crime is increasing or decreasing.
Crime in a normal sense is an act or offence which is
punishable by law. Crime is a term used to describe any act that breaks a
society. Some examples of crimes are robbery, kidnapping, raping, theft etc.
Therefore, anyone that violet the law should be
arrested, tried and immediately sentenced to some time in prison if and only if
found guilty. The prison is where criminals are supposed to be reformed and
learn to obey the rules and regulation set down or order to govern the society
Despite the efforts of security agencies to curb crime
in our society, the rate of crime is increasing at alarming rate. This indeed
has been the common practice in the society especially within the youths. Many
measures had been taken to eradicate this abnormal behavior from our society,
nevertheless, the condition still remain the same as this criminal cases occur
day in day out in the society.
Prison is a place where people who are convicted by
the law court are being kept to await trial. It is a house built by the
government in order to detain anybody who goes against the law.
CLASSIFICATION OF CRIME
Crime can be classified in many ways, but some of them
1. Crime against people: This include rape, kidnapping, murder (homicide), robbery etc, such
crimes usually carries severe punishment.
2. Crime against property: Automobile, fraud, forgery, vandalism and robbery. In most
cases these crimes may carry higher penalties than crime against people.
3. Crime against public and morality order: This include disorderly conduct,
gambling, prostitution, public drunkenness etc
These offences generally involve bigger penalties.
CAUSES OF CRIME
Crimes are caused by many factors. Criminologist in
their studies enumerated the causes of crime as psychological, sociological and
heredity etc. While to the prison officers, crime is regarded as a human
reaction to his environment, for example, some crimes are caused by the
1. Economy: This
is a good cause of crime in our country, Nigeria. Without employment many had
roam the town and in consequence the devil offers them employment in crimes
especially property crimes.
2. After-War-Effect: After the civil war, many youths who have been trained in the use of
arms were left unemployed as a result of that crime and violence increase. The
drift from the rural to urban areas and the corresponding unemployment brought
about frustration and with the resultant poverty, destitution and lack of the
barest necessity of life, the youths resort to crime and this appears to be
3. Political Activities: Due to the political immaturity of the masses in the Nigeria scene,
political campaigns and elections are regrettably atrocious. Crimes such as
murder, looting, corruption and rioting amongst others were among the factors
the encouraged criminal activities in our society.
In most cases, the law enforcement agencies are
incapable of action especially when the rich or influential politicians are
concerned or when the political party in power is concerned associated with
this also are embezzlement of public funds through contracts, nepotism and
corruption in distribution of public offices and privileges. These are
PREVENTION OF CRIME
This means severe punishment for any wrong conduct. No doubt this objectives
governs the minds of the Nigeria courts and indeed the public. When one is
being sentenced to prison, section 4(1) of prison Decree 1972 (decree 9) stated
that “subject to this section, the effect of sentence of imprisonment is with
hard labour passed upon a prison shall be that the prisoner shall be imprisoned
for the period of the sentence and during his imprisonment shall work at such
labour as may be directed by the superintendant”. This law therefore emphasized
the puncture aspect.
This can also be seen as consequence or punishment set aside by the government
in order to serve as a lesson to determine both the prisoner and the public at
According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary,
a prison is “a building where people are kept as a punishment for a crime they
TYPES OF PRISON
1. Convict Prison:
This prison receives all cases of prisoners i.e. long and short sentence,
condemned criminals and those of gazette etc.
2. Divisional or provincial prison: It receives the cases of anybody sentenced under 12 years.
The long term prisoners that may be found in this prison are those of special
arrangement. E.g. building, carpentry, bricklayers after which they must be
returned to the convict prison.
3. Central prison:
Central prison is a prison that governs all other prison activities in a given
division and it is headed by the controller general of prison.
4. Prison camp:
Used to keep prisoner to learn skills such as carpentry, tailoring bricklaying,
1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF STUDY
The Nigeria Police Force had its origin in year 1861.
The consul at that time complained that he had numerous duties among those of
the police trust on him and in 1861 permission was sought from the British
consular guard of 30 men. This was so named because the representative of the
British government was John Becroft. Two years later in 1863, this small guard
was renamed “Hausa Police” consisting of 600 men because of the enlistment into
it of some captured runaway slave at Jebba by it. Worer R. N. in 1879 the Hausa
Police was further enlarged by the recruitment of more men mainly from the
Hausa and was named Hausa constabulary. It then consisted of 1200 officers and
commanded by an Inspector-General of police. Duty was mainly military in
character. Although the men were expected to perform some civil duties one of
such military duties was the provision of detachment of 8 officers and 251 men for
On January 1st 1896, the Lagos Police Force
was created like the Hansa constabulary. This was the arm. It consisted of a
commissioner, two Assistant Commissioners, a superintendent and quarter master,
and 250 other ranks. This force operated mainly in Lagos area, while the
constabulary operated in the north, the detective department was formed in 1898
and consisted of one superintendent and 14 other ranks from this grew our
present criminal Investigation Department (CID).
Nigeria became a federal republic on October 1st
1963. The force continued to be administered on a federal bases as enacted in
the Republican Constitution. The Divisional Police Station in Kuje Area was
established on the 15th August, 1985, as police station is known,
most of its functions are to take charge of criminal offences.
However, some of the analysis on criminal offenses
recorded in Kuje Divisional Police Station between the year 1999 – 2007
includes house breaking, theft, armed robbery, bribery and corruption rape etc.
1.3 SCOPE AND COVERAGE
Criminal statistics data is the collection of data
within an area over a period of time, example daily, weekly, yearly etc. It is
important in the sense that the data used in this project is a criminal data
collected from the Kuje Police Headquarters on the record of criminal offenses
recorded from 1999 – 2007.
1.4 GENERAL AND SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
The general aim of this study is to estimate the rate
of crime and use it to forecast the future condition.
estimate the model concerning crime rate
test the normality of the model (using normal probability plot) in order to see
if the data can be used for the analysis
forecast the future cases of crime using time series model
suggest the possible means of eradicating crime.
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