Criminality has become part and parcel of human nature and
society. That is 'why no society can claim to be completely free of crimes. One
of the major objectives of police is to tackle the problem of the pervasive
negative perception by a large segment of the public. Yet, the tasks of police
security administration and crime prevention and detection as well as prosecution
of offenders cannot be successfully performed without the cooperation of the
public. The challenges of national security by the Nigeria police force have
been made more complex by a number of factors, like ethnic diversity, plurality
of religions, economic down-turn and unemployment, our recently enthroned
democracy and the accompanying release of bottled up emotions from years of
repression of the civil population under military governance.
Attempt was made to employ the use of survey research
design and systematic random probability technique was utilized so as to
facilitate the sourcing of primary data through the use of questionnaire and
personal interview from the field. From the study, three hypotheses was tested
which help us to arrive at a more logical and reliable findings, through the
aid of Simple Mean (x) and Average. More so, from the hypotheses tested in the
study, the result obtained from the three hypotheses tested revealed that out
of the three hypotheses tested two of the alternative hypotheses (HI) was accepted
while the null hypotheses (Hs) was completely rejected. The results imply that there is a
significant relationship between the Nigeria Police Force and Security
Administration in Nigeria.
From the findings of the study, conclusion and useful
recommendations were made. The recommendations here are based on the findings
from the study which is believed will elicit the attention of the government,
the Nigeria police command and the reading public towards improving on the
Nigeria police force in fostering effective security administration through
attitudinal re-orientation (appropriate selection criteria, proper and adequate
training and considerably improved police salary and conditions of service) to
achieve a long-lasting solution is eminent. It is concluded that even if all
the suggestions offered could be implemented with a magic wand, they will not
yield results "over-night" as the problems and obstacles involved
date back to the 1930S. The problems and obstacles in the way of
effective/efficient policing and law-enforcement in the country, the present governmental
and police leadership should conceptualize its policy options now, start
executing these soonest, and expect results in phased-terms.
TABLE OF CONTENT
INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.1 Background of the Study
1.2 Statements of Research Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Statement of Research Hypotheses
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
1.7 Significance of the Study
1.8 Definition of Major Terms
1.9 Organization of the Study
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 Conceptual Framework
2.1.1 Objectives of Nigeria Police Force
2.1.2 Major Yardsticks for Measuring Successful
2.1.3 Causes and Cost of the Rising Rate of Crime
2.1.4 Nigeria Security Issues and Sustainable
2.1.5 Measures of
Combating Corruption within & Outside the
Nigeria Police Force.
Accountability& Security Administration in Nigeria
Cooperation for Effective Crime Control in Nigeria
2.1.8 The Impact of
Police Check Points on Crime and Community in Nigeria
2.1.9 Evaluation of
the Input and Output Performance of Nigeria Police Force
2.1.10 Public-Private Partnership in the Fight against
Crime in Nigeria
2.1.11 Challenges and Prospect of the Nigeria Police Force
2.2 Theoretical Framework
of Research Question and Hypotheses
of the Study
3.4 Sample and
of Data Collection Instrument
for Data Analysis
of the Methodology
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
Characteristics and Classification
and Analysis of Data According to Research Questions
and Analysis of Data According to Test of Hypotheses
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of
for Further Study
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
has become part and parcel of human nature and society. That is 'why no society
can claim to be completely free of crimes. But the types of criminal behaviour
tend to follow the pattern of social and economic development of a given
society Bashir (2002). It is therefore
not unexpected that a society at a low level of development tends to experience
an upsurge in the rate of violent crimes such as armed robbery, politically
motivated killings, the use of illegal weapons, ethnic and religious clashes
and the like. What is worrisome; however, is that 'the police which 'are meant
to be the antidote to criminality appears to be getting overwhelmed by the phenomenon.
The criminals appear to be ahead of' hee police such that the latter now only
react to the commission of crimes and usually after the offenders might have
left the scene (Aguolu, 2000).
of the major objectives of police is to tackle the problem of the pervasive
negative perception by a large segment of the
public. Yet, the tasks of crime prevention and detection as well as prosecution
'of offenders cannot be successfully performed without the cooperation of the
In addition to the complaint earlier referred
to, there are institutional constraints, which contribute to the
uncomplimentary image of the police and thereby undermining their capacity to
deliver efficient crime control and policing services. Akano (2004), noted that these include inadequate
manpower, lack of expertise, lack of adequate equipment, low level of
education, low morale, shabby appearance, lack of training facilities and poor
conditions of service of the average police man.
police began with a (30) thirty-member consular guard formed in Lagos Colony in
1861. In 1879 a 1,200-lneniber armed paramilitary Hausa Constabulary was
formed. In 1896 the Lagos Police was established. A similar force, the Niger
Coast Constabulary, was formed in Calabar in 1894 under the newly proclaimed
Niger Coast Protectorate. Likewise, in the north, the Royal Niger Company set
up the Royal Niger Company Constabulary in 1888 with headquarters at Lokoja.
When the protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria were proclaimed in the
early 1900S, part of the Royal Niger Company Constabulary became the Northern
Nigeria Police, and part of the Niger Coast Constabulary became the Southern
Nigeria Police. Northern and Southern Nigeria were amalgamated in 1914, but
their police forces were not' merged
until 1930, forming the NPF, headquartered in Lagos. During the colonial
period, most police were associated with local governments (native
authorities). In the 1960s, under the First Republic, these forces were first
regionalized and then nationalized.
NPF ‘performed conventional police functions and was responsible for internal
security generally; for supporting the prison, immigration, and customs
services; and for performing military in Inid-1980 to expand the force to
200,000. By 1983, according to the federal budget, the strength of the NPF was
almost 152,000, but other
sources estimated it to be between 20,000 and
80,000. They were often deployed
throughout the country, but in 1989 Babangida announced that a larger number of
officers would be posted to their native areas to facilitate police- community
relations (Bashir, 2002).
NPF was under the general operational and administrative control of an
Inspector-general appointed by the president and responsible for the
maintenance of law and order. He was supported at headquarters in Lagos by a deputy
inspector general and in each state by police commissioners. The 1999
constitution further improved on .the 1979
constitution providing for a Police
Service Commission that was responsible for NPF policy, organization,
administration, and finance (except for pensions).
STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
has been observed by majority of Nigerians that the Nigeria Police Force seems
not to have performed at an optimum level in marshalling security
administration in Nigeria owing to problems relating to inadequacies,
mismanagement, embezzlement, poor policy framework and deplorable incentive
packages. There is abundant official and research confirmation of this
assertion, apart from information in the daily newspapers, and there is no need
to "prove" the non-optimum performance of the Nigeria Police Force in
the present contribution. Rather, what is needed is to further identify other
major inadequacies, problems and obstacles that may be responsible for the
situation. And these may be grouped into three categories: logistics
inadequacies; human problems; and obstacles external to the Force, these
identified problems serves as the key motive that set the pace for the research
study, as follow:
.inadequacies, material inputs in terms of funding, crime-prevention/control, detection, investigation, traffic
control and accident-prevention, communication and data gathering research
needs are not only inadequate but are unrealistic as well. The authorities of
the Nigeria Police Force have always provided the technical details of these
logistic inadequacies, even if sometimes exaggerated for obvious reasons.
problems, had the quality of the human or personnel resources of the Force been
optimum? The logistics inadequacies might have been partially ameliorate. In
other words, the Nigeria Police Force has human problems which may have not
only, aggravated its logistics insufficiencies, but are also" of
tremendous adverse import on its general performance from one day to the next.
Improper inefficient and, sometimes corrupt and nepotistic methods of
recruitment; insufficient length of training-period and attention in training
recruits for the "rank and file"; discourtesy, non-challant attitude
to reports of citizen complaints, dishonesty, corruption, abuse or misuse of
the authority to arrest, detain or use force by a substantial number of
policemen on the streets, in the station, etc.
of an overall crime-prevention/ control policy, body and planning; Political
interference and the feeling of accountability
by the Force to the "government of the day" rather than to the rule
of law and the people (i.e. a carryover from the colonial period and the
succeeding military regimes); a materialistic, greedy, corrupt and indiscipline
socio-economic environment (i.e. a society gets what police force deserves);
and the burdensome character of our inherited legal system (from the
substantive and procedural law through justice administration to
offender-correction) which has never been meaningfully or social-scientifically
reviewed to make justice "real" rather than "technical".
OF THE STUDY
evaluate the correlation between the Nigeria Police Force and security
administration in Nigeria.
ascertain the inadequacies of logistics and police mandate in crime-prevention.
investigate- the extent at which corrupt and nepotistic methods of recruitment
hampers effective police security administration in Nigeria.
examine the absence of an overall crime prevention/control policy and poor
security administration by the Nigeria police force.
provide useful recommendations on how to improve security administration
through effective and proactive policing in Nigeria.
(i). Is there any correlation
between the Nigeria Police Force and security administration in Nigeria?
(ii). Does the inadequacies of
logistics hinders police mandate in crime-prevention?
what extent does corrupt and nepotistic methods of recruitment hampers effective police Nigeria?
the absence of an overall crime-prevention/control policy hampers poor security
administration by the Nigeria police force?
1.5 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH
Ho = There is no correlation
between the Nigeria Police Force and security administration.
H1 = There
is correlation between the Nigeria Police Force and security administration .
Ho = The inadequacies of
logistics does not hinders police mandate
H1 = The inadequacies of
logistics hinders police mandate in crime-prevention.
Ho = Corrupt and nepotistic
methods of recruitment does not hampers effective police security
administration in Nigeria.
H1 = Corrupt and nepotistic
methods of recruitment hampers effective police security administration in
1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
the good intentions of any meaningful project, it is however difficult for a
researcher to successfully obtain and be able to manage the numerous variables
that are supposed to be observed.
a result of time constraint and the eventual cost of carrying out this study, a
comprehensive study of the "Role of the Nigeria Police Force towards
"Effective Security Administration in Nigeria" will not be possible,
since the study will lay emphasis on the Akinpelu Divisional Head Quarters,
Bolade Oshodi, Lagos. In view of the above constraints mentioned, the study
will cover certain sections/departments of the organization - the relationship
between and/or among the department- and the degree of movement of staff in and
out of the organization will be observe in the course of the study.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
significance of this study cannot be over emphasize as the following people are
bound to benefit from the findings of this study.
study is significant to the researcher in that, it has exposed the researcher
to identify possible causes of crime in the Nigeria society with the view to
advising organizations, governments, individuals and security agencies and
stakeholders on possible ways to reduce crime rate and as well as engendering
effective security administration by the Nigerian Police Force and other
society at large including management of organization, the reading public,
other researchers, students, scholars and other upcoming student in this field
of study can always benefit from the various recommendations enlisted, which
the researcher hope will receive considerable attention, so as to reduce the
alarming rate of crime in the Nigeria economy, thereby enabling the Nigerian
Police Force to contribute meaningfully towards economic development
effectively and efficiently.
1.8 DEFINITION OF MAJOR TERMS
Force: Is an institution
set by government to combat crime ranging from theft-burglary, as well as to
prevent, control and combat criminality, and to maintain public order and peace.
refers to the prerogative of the government to marshal and put in place
institutionalized framework to administer the regressive upheavals and menace
in the society through the Nigeria Police Force.
Performance: This is the measures through which the
Nigeria Police Force mandate to administer security are been evaluated in line
with their fight against criminality and social order in the society.
Crime: It refers to serious offences, act that
breaks the law, illegal act that utter the sanctity, orderliness, threat to
life and properties in all spheres of human inhabitations.
1.9 ORGANIZATION/PLAN OF THE
research work will be divided into five chapters:
one is the introduction part, which covers the background of the study,
statement of the problem, the objectives of the study, research hypotheses, and
significance of the study, scope and limitations of the study, definition of
terms and organization of the study .
two contains the literature review and theoretical framework. In this chapter
the views relating to the study of early writers on the topic are considered
three contains the research methodology which covers the research method
(instrument) or approach, the population of the study, the sample and
technique, the method of data collection and the method for data analyses and
interpretation. Chapter four contains the data presentation, analysis and
interpretation. In this chapter, the data gathered from the respondents will be
presented, analyzed and interpreted. Chapter five contains the summary,
conclusion and recommendation based on the results' in chapter four.