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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007100

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This study was carried out to determine the antibacterial activity of different toothpastes on dental bacterial. Oral samples were collected before early morning brushing with water from students. Five brands of toothpaste namely Close up, Maclean, oral B, Darbur herbal and Coalgate were tested for their antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp, and Escherichia coli using agar disc diffusion method at different concentrations. Biochemical characterization, Minimum inhibitory concentration were also determined. This study proved that triclosan and sodium fluoride containing toothpaste formulations is more effective in the control of oral micro flora compared to non triclosan containing toothpaste. Based on this study, Coalgate toothpaste are potent antibacterial agent in combating carries causing bacteria and should be comfortably used by individual as suitable oral care product for preventing dental infections, followed by oral B, Darbur herbal, Close up, and the least was Maclean toothpaste.


Title Page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    iv

Table of contents                                                                                                        v

Lists of Tables                                                                                                             vii

Abstract                                                                                                                      viii



1.1       Background of Study                                                                                     1

1.2       Statement of Problems                                                                                    3

1.3       Justification                                                                                                     3

1.4       Significance of the Study                                                                               3

1.5        Aim                                                                                                                 3

1.6       Specific Objectives                                                                                         4



2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                              5

2.1       Types of Toothpaste                                                                                       6

2.1.1    Anti decay toothpaste                                                                                     6                     

2.1.2    Desensitizing toothpaste                                                                                 6                     

2.1.3    Anti-plaque toothpaste                                                                                   7

2.1.4    Anti- calculus toothpaste:                                                                               7

2.1.5    Whitening toothpaste:                                                                                     7

2.3       Composition of Toothpaste                                                                            7

2.4       Classification of Toothpastes                                                                          9

2.5       Oral Organisms                                                                                               10

2.6       Oral Health                                                                                                     10

2.7       Oral Candidiasis                                                                                             11

2.8       Causes of Dental Caries                                                                                  11

2.8.1    Causes of tooth decay                                                                                    12

2.8.2    Gingivitis                                                                                                        12

2.8.3    Periodontitis                                                                                                    13

2.8.4    Prevention of oral diseases                                                                             13

2.8.5    Causes of teeth decay                                                                                     13

2.8.6    Hygiene                                                                                                           16 Important Oral Hygiene                                                                                  16 Dental problems related to poor oral hygiene                                                 17 Oral hygiene, gum disease and heart disease                                                  21



3.1       Collection of Sample                                                                                      22

3.2       Sterility                                                                                                           22

3.3       Culture media and Preparation                                                                       22

3.4       Isolation of Microorganisms from the Mouth                                                 22

3.5       Subculture                                                                                                       23

3.6       Characterization and Identification of the bacteria Isolates                           23

3.7       To Determine Antibacterial Activity of some Toothpaste                              23

3.8       Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration

(MIC) of the Various Toothpaste                                                                   23



4.0  RESULTS                                                                                                            25



5.0       DISCUSSION                                                                                                34

5.1       Conclusion                                                                                                      36

5.2       Recommendation                                                                                            37

References                                                                                                      38

            Appendix                                                                                                        41






Table 4.1:        Identification and Characteristics of Isolates                                                             27

Table 4.2:        Zone of inhibition (mm) of the five toothpaste

against Staphylococcus aureus                                                                        28

Table 4.3:        Zone of inhibition (mm) of  the five toothpaste against Escherchia . coli     29

Table 4.4:        Zone of inhibition (mm) of the five toothpaste against Streptococcus spp    30

Table 4.5:        Determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC)           

Result of Minimum inhibitory concentration of various

toothpaste on Staphylococcus aureus                                                             31

Table 4.6:        Result of Minimum inhibitory concentration of various

toothpaste on Streptococcus spp                                                                     32

Table 4.7:        Result of Minimum inhibitory concentration of various

toothpaste on Eschericha coli                                                                         33







1.1       Background of Study

The human mouth is a home to millions of microorganisms. Although most are harmless, some can cause oral infection such as tooth decay or gum disease. These microorganisms feed on leftover food particles and products acid and volatile sulfur molecules, acid damages the tooth enamel which can lead to the formation of cavities while volatile sulfur molecules cause bad breath. Oral cavity is also an essential sterile, warm and moist environment or incubator containing various nutritional substances that favour the growth of some normal flora, continuously bathed with saliva and has a PH of between 6.75 and7.25. Thus, the oral cavity is inhabited by hundreds of bacterial species that play vital roles in maintaining oral health or in shifting to a diseased states such as dental caries (Gibbons and Houte, 1990).The burden of dental caries is still a major health problem in most industrialized countries affecting 60-90% of most school children and a vast majority of adult. The accumulation and metabolism of bacteria on teeth and implants surface are considered the primary cause of caries, gingivitis, periodontitis etc. (Newman  et al., 2006).The flora of normal healthy dentate mouth has 85%, streptococci, veillionella, gram positive diptheroids ,gram negative anaerobic rod,5-7% of Neisseria,2% lactobacilli, 2% filamentous bacteria,1% staphylococci and Micrococci. The remainders are other bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses (Todar, 2012). Candida albicans is the most common yeast isolated from the oral cavity. Poor oral hygiene is one of the reasons for accumulation of these microbes and their harmful activities (Manupati, 2011). According to the American Dental Association, toothpastes are pastes, gel or powder that helps to remove plaque, a film of bacteria that forms on teeth and gum. Toothpaste is also a paste or gel used with a toothbrush as an accessory to clean and maintain the aesthetics and health of teeth (ADA, 2012). Teeth, also called dentifrices is essential to daily oral hygiene routine and have been prepared in several forms such as powders pastes and gels The most popular forms are the pastes and gel with over five billion tubes used worldwide each year. However when cleaning teeth with a toothbrush and toothpaste, the essential cleaning is done by the mechanical brushing, and not by the active toothpaste chemicals, the toothpaste mainly improves the mechanical brushing and cleaning power of a toothbrush. The purpose of oral hygiene using toothpaste is to reduce fluoride to the teeth (Dilip  et  al., 2008).This is because fluoride has been proven to protect teeth against attack from bacterial , it helps remove plaque, prevent tooth decay by strengthening tooth enamel and can be found naturally in many everyday things including food and drinking water (Reynolds,1994).

Studies have shown that tooth paste has a key in helping to remove dental plaque; the major cause of dental caries and periodontal disease (George et al., 2008; Barnes et  al., 2010;  Thomas et al., 2010;  Okpalugo  et al., 2009).Today, modern developments in toothpaste have led to the addition of Anti-microbial chemotherapeutic agent to improve oral health or as a means of reducing the levels of oral bacteria, specifically streptococcus mutans (Forward,1991).Tooth pastes are the major products for routinely administering effective cosmetic and therapeutic agents in the mouth. These products are the most widely used by consumers, generating the largest sales of all dental products. Thus, Dentifrices are designed to solve specific or certain dental problems examples cavity protection, plaque and gingivitis prevention, tooth whitening, tooth sensitivity relief, tartar control, fresh breath and to prevent fluorosis in children (Reynolds, 1994). Essential oil, such as eucalyptol, menthol and thymol, frequently used to flavouring in oral product, can also contribute to the antiseptic properties of these products. When these substances are added to oral product, they kill microorganisms by disrupting their cell walls and inhibiting their enzymatic activity. They prevent bacterial aggregation, slow multiplication and release endotoxins (Bou-chacra, et al., 200)

1.2       Statement of problems

The researchers observed that Dental health issues related to microbial infection are on the increase inspite of daily use of sodium fluoride containing tooth paste by people.

1.3 Justification

This study is design to provide information on the sodium fluoride and triclosan concentration of tooth paste that will effectively reduce oral bacteria.

1.4   Significance of the Study

Studies have shown that dental problems are due to microbial infection, dental problems are of three types, formation of dental plague, dental cries and periodontal disease (Manupati, 2011). A wide range of antimicrobial agents have been added to tooth paste in other to produce a direct inhibitory effect on plaque formation. (fine et al, 2016, Pannuti et al 2003).

The addition of antimicrobial agent such as fluoride, triclosan to tooth paste has been suggested as one of possible method to improve the efficacy of mechanical tooth cleaning procedure (fine et al, 2006)


1.6   Aim  

·         To determine the microbiological quality and antibacterial activity of different brands of toothpaste in Nigeria.

1.6 Specific Objectives

·         To isolate, identify and characterize microbiota

·         To determine the antibacterial efficacy of some tooth paste

·         To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of various toothpaste on isolates


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