• 0 Review(s)

Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007084

No of Pages: 41

No of Chapters: 1-5

File Format: Microsoft Word

Price :




This study investigated the phytochemical constituents and antibacterial potentials of leaves of Cannabis sativa and Azadirachta indica in its aqueous and ethanolic extract against some clinical organisms. The in-vitro antibacterial potentials of the plants extracts were screened using the paper disc diffusion and broth dilution techniques at varying concentrations. The ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed synergism activity against at least one of the test organisms with the ethanol extract of A. indica and C. sativa showing maximum synergism activity against Staphylococcus aureus with zones of inhibition in the range of 8.5±0.70 to 15.0±1.41mm and 9.0±1.41mm to 12.5±0.70mm respectively. The crude ethanolic extract of the plants, Cannabis sativa and Azadirachta indica showed remarkable synergistic activity against the growth of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 100mg/ml concentrations. With diameter zone inhibition of 14.5mm, 13.0mm and 11.5mm respectively. The aqueous extract of the leaf of these plants, showed least activity when compared with the ethanol extracts. The aqueous extracts were only active at 100mg/ml concentrations. Azadirachta indica extract showed an MIC and MBC values in the range of 12.5 to 50mg/ml. Similarly, Cannabis sativa showed MIC and MBC within 25mg/ml and 50mg/ml concentrations. The Phytochemical screening of samples revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as Alkaloids, Flavonoids, quinines, Cardiac glycosides and Tannins. This study establishes a good support to the use of plant in herbal remedies and as base for development of new drugs


Certification                                                                                                                            i

Title page                                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   v

List of Tables                                                                                                                          vii

Abstract                                                                                                                                  viii


1.0       Introduction                                                                                                                1

1.1              Aims and Objectives                                                                                                   4


2.0       Literature review                                                                                                         6

2.1       Cannabis sativum                                                                                                        6

2.2       Cannabis toxicity in humans                                                                                       7

2.2.1    Cannabis and the central nervous system (CNS)                                                        8 Cognition and coordination                                                                                        8 Psychosis and schizophrenia                                                                                       9 Pulmonary disease and lung cancer                                                                            10 Vascular conditions:                                                                                                  10  Cannabis and carcinogenic potential:                                                            10  Fertility                                                                                                                      11 Cannabis hyperemesis syndrome                                                                                11

2.3       Cannabis during development: the adolescent and prenatal    periods                       12

2.3.1    Fetus                                                                                                                           12

2.3.2    Adolescence                                                                                                                12

2.4       Cannabis and society                                                                                                  14

2.4.1    Cannabis and driving                                                                                                  14

2.4.2    Cannabis, employment, the workplace                                                                       14

2.4.3    Cannabis and advanced education                                                                             15

2.5        Dependence, abuse and cannabis use disorder (cud)                                                 15

2.5.1    Psychological or physiological dependence                                                                15

2.5.2    Globally                                                                                                                      16

2.6       The use of cannabis for medical purposes                                                                  18

2.6.1    Neurological diseases or symptoms                                                                           18

2.6.2    Multiple sclerosis                                                                                                       19

2.6.3    Neuropathic pain                                                                                                        19

2.6.4    Randomized controlled trials with cannabis:                                                              20

2.6.5    Alzheimer’s disease                                                                                                    21

2.7        Azadirachta indica: neem tree                                                                        22

2.8       Medicinal uses                                                                                                            23

2.9       Phytochemicals                                                                                                           25

2.10     Antimicrobial activity of Azadirachta indica (neem tree)                                           27

2.10.1  Antibacterial and anti-fungal activities                                                                       28




3.0      Materials and Methods                                                                                                            30

3.1     Collection of plant materials                                                                                                     30

3.2       Extraction of plant material                                                                                                    30

3.3       Preparation of extract                                                                                                             31

3.3.1    Screening of the Extracts for Antibacterial Activity                                                              31

3.3.2    Determination of MIC and MBC                                                                                           32

3.4       Qualitative phytochemical screening                                                                                      33

3.4.1    Tests for Alkaloids (Mayer’s Test)                                                                                         33

3.4.2    Test for Flavonoids (Alkaline reagent test)                                                                            33

3.4.3    Test for Tannins                                                                                                                      33

3.5.3    Tests for Glycosides                                                                                                               33

3.6       Biochemical identification of the test organisms                                                                    34

3.6.1    Gram staining                                                                                                                          34

3.6.2    Catalase Test                                                                                                                           34

3.6.3    Coagulase Test            `                                                                                                           34

3.6.4    Citrate Utilisation Test                                                                                                            35

3.6.5    Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) Production Test                                                                            35

3.6.6    Indole Test                                                                                                                              35



4.0       Results                                                                                                                                    36


5.0         Discussion, conclusion and recommendation                                                                       43

5.1         Discussion                                                                                                                             43

5.2         Conclusion                                                                                                                            46

5.3         Recommendation                                                                                                                  47













Table                                                           Title                                                                Page

 1         Diameter zone of Inhibition (mm) produced by ethanol and aqueous extracts of A. indica 37

 2         Diameter zone of Inhibition (mm) produced by ethanol and aqueous extracts of C. sativa  38

 3         MIC and MBC values (mg/ml) of ethanol extract of Cannabis sativa and A. indica plants                 against the test isolates                                                                                                              39

 4         MIC and MBC values (mg/ml) of aqueous extract of Cannabis sativa and A. indica plants             against the test isolates                                                                                                             40

5          Shows the Phytochemical analysis of extracts of Cannabis sativum and  Azadirachta         indica                                                                                                                                      41                                                                                







Nature has provided a complete store house of remedies to cure all ailments of mankind. The natural or herbal remedies are still the backbone of medicines. The use of medicinal plants as a source for relief from illness can be traced back over five millennia to written documents of the early civilization, but it is doubtless an art as old as mankind. Phytotherapy is a medicinal practice based on the use of herbal plants and their extracts. These herbs or plants and their active ingredients are used in traditional herbal remedies. The easy availability, low cost and negligible side effects, natural products are popular in the nowadays in the world (Albinu et al., 2010). All the herbs produced bewildering variety of phytochemicals like primary metabolites (carbohydrates, fats, proteins) and secondary metabolites (Alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, polyphenols, etc.) for their normal metabolic activities (Nair and Chanda, 2010). These secondary metabolites showed various biological activities and act in plant defense mechanisms. The chemical profile of a single plant may vary over time as it reacts to changing conditions. The secondary metabolites have therapeutic actions, which produced drugs (Lai, 2004).

Biologically active compounds present in the medicinal plants have always been of great interest to scientists working in this field. In recent years this interest to evaluate plants possessing antibacterial activity for various diseases is growing (Kaushik et al., 2003). Plant materials remain an important resource to combat serious diseases in the world. The traditional medicinal methods, especially the use of medicinal plants, still play a vital role to cover the basic health needs in the developing countries (Satish et al., 2008). The medicinal value of these plants lies in some chemical active substances that produce a definite physiological action on the human body (Ceylan and Fung, 2004).

Plants produce a diverse range of bioactive molecules, making them rich source of different types of medicines. The most important of these bioactive constituents of plants are alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Phytomedicines derived from plants have shown great promise in the treatment of various diseases including bacterial and viral infections (Duke, 1992).

Azadirachta indica Neem is used in traditional medicine as a source of many therapeutic agents in the Indian culture and grows well in the tropical countries. Its twigs provide a chewing stick and are widely used in the Indian sub-continent. Earlier studies on neem have showed that it contains active substances with multiple medicinal properties (Maragatharavlli et al., 2012). Neem leaves has antibacterial properties and could be used for controlling airborne bacterial contamination in the residential premise (El-Mahmood et al., 2010). Administration of alcoholic extract of neem flower disrupts the estrous cycle in Sprague Dawley rats and causes a partial block in ovulation and has the potential of an ideal antifertility agent (Gbotolorun et al., 2008). The popularity of the plant products is increasing because of their biodegradability, least persistence and least toxic to non-target organisms, economic and easy availability. Today about 200 plants with insecticidal activities are known. Among the natural products, one of the most promising natural compounds is Azadirachtin, an active compound extracted from the Azadirachta indica, whose antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial and insecticidal properties have been known for several years. Chemical investigation on the products of the neem tree was extensively undertaken in the middle of the isolation of nimbin, the first bitter compound isolated from neem oil, more than 135 compounds have been isolated from different parts of neem (Ganguli, 2002). Neem elaborates a vast array of biologically active compounds that are chemically diverse and structurally complex. Medicinal properties of the plant Azadirachta indica were studied by several workers. Azadirachta indica is a wonder plant with valuable economic and health significance attached to all its parts. In fact, it is a well know versatile medicinal plants with wide spectrum of biological activities (Siddique et al., 2004). For example, its leaf, back, roots, fruit coat, seed and flowers (Atawodi and Atawodi, 2009) have been demonstrated to exhibit immunomodulatory (Haque et al., 2006), anti-inflammatory (Akihisa et al., 2011), anti-hyperglycaemic and antidiabetic (Bhat et al., 2011), antiulcer (Chattopadhyay et al., 2004), antimalarial (Isah et al., 2003), antifungal (Natarajan et al., 2003), antibacterial (Thakurta et al., 2007), antiviral (Parida et al., 2002) anticarcinogenic (Kumar et al., 2006) and spermicidal (Khillare and Shrivastav, 2003) properties and antifertility agent ( Gbotolorun et al., 2008). (Bandyopadhyay et al., 2002). Boiled neem leaf water makes an excellent antiseptic to clean wounds, soothes, swellings and eases skin problems (Bonjar and Holland, 2004).


The 'Cannabis sativa' plant is perhaps one of the most easily identifiable plants of the plant kingdom. The Cannabis sativa plant, more commonly known to us as marijuana falls under the taxon of wild or feral plants. Cannabis sativa is an angiosperm belonging to the Cannabaceae family and Cannabis genus (Borhade, 2013). Cannabis is grown and processed for many uses. Many plant parts are used as medicine for humans and livestock, whole seeds and seed oil are eaten by humans, seeds and leaves are fed to animals, seeds oil and stalks are burned for fuel. Whole plants, leaves and wood have environmental uses, bark, fiber and seeds are also of ritual importance (Clarke, 2002). Renewed interest into cannabis in the last few decades balanced between excitement from all kinds of newly discovered pharmacologically desired effects and fear from abuse and risky behavior in society (Pomahacova et al., 2009). Cannabinoids interact with various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, such as gamma-aminobutyricacid (GABA), histamine, serotonin, dopamine, glutamate, norepinephrine, prostaglandins and opioid peptides (Grotenhermen, 2002). The use of Cannabis sativa (Cannabis) extracts as medicine was described in China and India before the birth of Christ (Fankhauser, 2002). The therapeutic use of Cannabis was introduced in Western medicine in the first half of the 19th century and reached its climax in the last two decades of the same century. At the turn of the century, several pharmaceutical companies were marketing Cannabis extracts and tinctures which were prescribed by doctors for many different complaints including pain, whooping cough and asthma, and as a sedative/hypnotic agent (Fankhauser, 2002).

The leaves of 'Cannabis sativa' plant possess good antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Gram-negative bacteria of the Escherichia coli, Pseudomounas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Enterococccus faecalis, acid-fast bacteria, yeast like fungi, filamentous fungi and dermatophyt (Wasim et al., 1995). Cannanbinoids have strong antileishmanial activity and effective to killing Candida albicans (Whittakar et al., 2004). The contact of both herpes simplex virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 to various absorptions of delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol present a plaque assay utilizing confluent monkey cells that have possible mechanisms for antiviral activity and that this activity is modified by the presence of serum proteins (Lancz et al., 1991).

1.2              AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

1.                  To investigate the antibacterial activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Cannabis sativa and Azadirachta indica in synergism on some pathogenic organisms;

2.                  To determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Cannabis sativa and Azadirachta indica in synergism on some pathogenic organisms;

3.                  To determine the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Cannabis sativa and Azadirachta indica in synergism on some pathogenic organisms;

4.                  To screen the leaves of Cannabis sativa and Azadirachta indica for different phytochemical constituents.



Click “DOWNLOAD NOW” below to get the complete Projects


+(234) 0814 780 1594

Buyers has the right to create dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when you experience issue with the file received. 

Dispute can only be created when you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of contents and content of the file you received. shall either provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and Conditions are applied.

Buyers are expected to confirm that the material you are paying for is available on our website and you have selected the right material, you have also gone through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.

In case of payment for a material not available on, the management of has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that is available on our website within 48 hours.

You cannot change topic after receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.

Ratings & Reviews


No Review Found.

To Review

To Comment