The research work is to examine the
students seating arrangement with respect to their vision challenges.
During the course of the work, it was
discovered that students at the back row have the challenges of seeing the
board. This was as a result of the distance and the area of the classroom to
students ratio, while the middle row experience less challenges unlike the back
row with the same causes. Students at the front seat do not experience any
TABLE OF CONTENTS
of contents viii-ix
1.1 Seating, vision, reading and learning
background of Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin.
1.3 Significant of the study
1.4 Problem statement
1.5 Aims and objectives
2.0 Literature review
2.1 The mechanics of vision
2.2 Vision disorder
2.3 How vision affects learning
3.1 Method of data collection
3.2 Attributes data
3.3 P. chart (chart construction)
3.4 Cause – and – effect diagram
should a team use a cause and effect diagram?
3.4.2 Why should we use a cause and effect
4.0 Data presentation and analysis
4.1 Data presentation
4.2 Data analysis using control chart
4.3 Summary statistics
4.4 Cause and effect diagram
communication in the classroom is essential to the success of both the student
and the teacher. The kind of communication as well as the amount of
communication that occurs in the classroom has long been thought to be
partially a function of the seating arrangement of students. Where there
probably is an infinite number of ways of arranging a classroom, three are most
common; traditional, horseshoe and modular.
traditional arrangement for classroom typically consists of about five or six
perfectly straight rows, each containing five to seven chairs equidistant from
each other or as Rosenfield and Civikly say, “something like tombstones in a
military cemetery”. Historically, Sommer explains the straight-row arrangement
evolved to make the best use of the only adequate lighting then
available-natural light from side windows. In spite of development in lighting
which make the straight-row arrangement unnecessary, this traditional
arrangement persists, in fact dominates. A recent survey of classrooms on a
University Campus found over 90 percent of the classrooms to have this
Horseshoe or semi-circular arrangement is frequently employed in smaller
classes, such as seminar. Some rooms are not physically conducive to this
arrangement for large classes because of the “dead space” in the middle.
Consequently, a “double horseshoe”, two semi-circular rows with one inside the
other, is also frequently observed.
modular arrangement is found mostly in specialized classrooms, e.g. Home
Economics, Science Laboratories and in classrooms of the lower elementary
1.1 SEATING, VISION, READING AND
importance of good vision to reading and learning has been the subject of
considerable study. Numerous clinical and research studies have shown that good
visual abilities are beneficial to learning to read and to read with
understanding. Children with normal eyesight (20/20) can have visual problems
which affect how their eyes focus, team together, or move along a line of print
learning-related vision problems cause children to struggle unnecessarily, and
this can result in their being mislabeled as learning disabled or having
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Fortunately, effective
treatment for these types of vision problems is available through vision
therapy is an individually prescribed program of procedure used to change and
improve vision abilities. Developmental Optometrists use vision therapy and
special lenses to train the eyes and the brain to work together more
effectively. Improvements in visual function enable the child to become more
1.2 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF KWARA
STATE POLYTECHNIC, ILORIN.
Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin formerly known as Kwara State College of
Technology, Ilorin. It is owned by government and financial institution of
tertiary learning. It was established by his Excellency, the then Military
Governor of Kwara State, Colonel David Bamigboye. The decision to establish the
polytechnic was announced during the launching of the four year development
plan in 1971.
college eventually comes into existence following the promulgation of Kwara
State Edict no. 4 of 1972 (now overtaken by the edict no. 21 of 1984; edict no.
13 of 1987 and edict no. 7 of 1994 as a body empowered by statute to provide
for studies, farming research and development of techniques in arts and language,
applied science, engineering, management and commerce, education and well as in
other sphere of learning.
Kwara State Polytechnic finally commences operation in January 1973 with
administrative machinery patterned closely after the existing University in the
polytechnic has its motto: TECHNOLOGY,
INNOVATION AND SERVICE.
applied science, engineering, management and commerce was opened in January
1973 with 110 students, 11 members of teaching staff and 3 senior
administrative staff, the original background paper in the proposal to
establish the institution stress the polytechnic must be developed in the area
of what is needed and not what is merely desirable. It was in pursuance of this
intention that the Kwara State Polytechnic was established in 1972 to meet the
learning of her citizen to bring polytechnic education to the state.
will not be complete without mentioning the succeeding governing council under
whose chairmanship the polytechnic has been steered since its inception namely;
Professor M.O. Oyawoye; Professor S.A. Toye, Professor T.O. Aro and so on.
THE GENERAL FUNCTION OF THE
promote and accelerate economic development of Kwara State as a component of
Federal Republic of Nigeria.
ensure adequate representation for Kwara State in Nigeria institution of Higher
learning by providing cheaply and effectively a centre where Kwarans can be
given pre-university preparation.
serve as a centre for education excellent.
1.3 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
need for a good vision cannot be over emphasize in any level of learning. The
need to have a good vision will enhance better academic performance.
seating arrangement/distance contributes a lot to the student vision.
the research work goes a long way in assisting the students in visual
challenges and the over-all performance of students academically and how
students can allocate their seat space/positions.
1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
research work tend to examine students with visual disability and the effect of
seating position on the students’ visual, hence the need to involve all students
irrespective of department as their targeted population for sampling for the
coverage frame for the survey on their seating and sight level for the selected
1.5. PROBLEM STATEMENT
are a lot of challenges/factors contributing to the academic performance of the
students in Higher Institutions; one of such is the visual/sight problem, the
research work tends to examine these factors among the students with respect of
their seating/position. This will go a long way in identifying the students
with eyes defect and their seating location.
examine students’ vision with respect to seating arrangement.
examine which of the seating position is with high defect.
examine frequency of vision defects (Problems)
examine the students’ vision status.