project work/study talks about the full meaning of the STDS. The causes of the sexually transmitted
diseases were found out to be virus and bacteria which can be transmitted from
one person to another predominantly through sexual contact. The scope of the study was also special and
federal medical center Umuahia (FMC) was used as a case study. One of the studies carried out by Dr. A.U.
Mbanuso at the Federal Medical center Umuahia 1990 – 1993. His result showed that the commest and most
ducally sexual transmitted disease was HIV/AIDS and Syphilis.
Furthermore, from the designed
questionnaire we found out that many people have become aware of the extend of
STDS. For the data collection used was a
secondary data. The population size in
this reported cases of the sexually transmitted diseases under study from 1995
– 2004 the result after study will be used to generalize for the entire
The major statistical model employed
in the analysis of the data collection was chi-square which was used to the age
group and sex. The test hypothesis for
the age group shows the X2 cal > X2 tab. Therefore we reject H0: and
conclude that the client rate is not dependent of the age. There the test of hypothesis for the sex
group shows that X2 cul > X2 tab. Therefore, we reject H0: and
conclude that the sexually transmitted diseases under study are not dependent
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Statement of the Problem
of the Study
of the Study
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Types of Stds
Nd Symptoms of Stds
and Control of Stds
3.0 Method of Data Collection and Sources of
3.1 Method Data Analysis
Sexually transmitted diseases, which
is popularly known as STDS, and its effect is now the talk of the day, town, and
world wide, even in Nigeria. This disease is a very strong disease that is
caused by virus. This virus enters the body through many means such as
sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, parental transmission. The main work of this virus is to weaken the
body mechanism known as Lymphocyte (White blood cell) making it possible for
any disease which enters the body to attack even more them expected. Both the developed and the undeveloped
countries of the world, it is a great problem medically their incidence are
steady rising. From the available statistical data the evidence have been
showing alarming rate of sexually transmitted diseases every day as mankind
gets more civilized. The sexually
transmitted diseases can be categorized into three: the first category are
referred to as the first category are referred to as the first generation,
these are gonorrhea, syphilis, and chancroid.
The second generation includes hympho granuloma venereum and granuloma
ingunale. The third generation which is
Aids (Acquired Immune Deficiency
Syndrome). These sexually transmitted disease have become a major public health
problem to most countries of the world, including Nigeria on the account of their
frequency, their impact on maternal and infant health and their special
consequences as well as their economic cost in terms of health expenditure and
cost of productivity. It has a serious effect
on pregnancy, and new borns are seriously affected which may lead to
miscarriage, failure of development of new baby, blindness congenital defects
etc. The implication in woman such as
pekvic inflammatory disease ectopic pregnancy, infertility and chronic ill health
are caused by sexual transmitted diseases where the incidence of undiagnosed or
poor treated cases is very high.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The disease, sexually transmitted
disease (STDS) is an old strong disease that was discovered before the amalgamation
in the year 1914 by a great medical scientist known as lordchester field, in
the year 1985. this disease has killed
very many paple, yet, as at that time people doesn’t believe it, not until a
good number of research work was carried out in the laboratory and evidence
showed that it is a communicable disease that can be contracted from one person
to another through predominantly sexual
contact; such as gonorrhea, syphilis enters the body veins through blood and
weakens or makes the white blood cell known as lymphocyte inactive to attack
the disease of the sexual transmitted disease and this deadly disease will dry
the victim to the extent that you will be able to count the bones and extent
that you will be able to count the bones and ribs of the patient. But some people are still doubting the
existence of the deadly disease STDS while statistical data table shows that
7,548 people was a victim within the year of 1985 to 1990. But the recent data collected shows that
17,277 people were infected as it was recorded at the Federal Medical Centre
Umuahia. In addition, the above
collected data will help the masses to reduce the rate of sexual act and sexual
promiscuity. The federal ministry of
health warns that total abstinence and mutual fidelity remains the best
protective measure for or against sexually
transmitted disease (STDS) such
as gonorrhea, syphilis etc. That is why the federal government supported
the introduction of sex education and the use of condom as a program in most of
our media, such as newspaper, radio, television etc. In order to educate the poor masses on the
subject matter and how to avoid contacting the deadly disease (STDS).
spreading of these deadly diseases (STDS) does not mean that both the internal
and external bodies’ even corporate organizations are not working to remedy the
issue. But we should not unemphasize the
problem facing the efforts. Some of this problems includes inadequate central
surveillance system from which all of us will be getting the information that
we carry and reply in our program, because what we get now in Nigeria is
information that is fragment not reconcilable.
Even when there is seeming different, there are not other third sources
of reference to cross check. Here the
problem of finance contributed to the collapse of the efforts been made. Take for instance, the latest inhibitors
introduced by Hoffmann – LaRoche of the Switzerland Eortovase and Viracept
cannot be obtained by poor countries like Nigeria.
We know that it will sound
unbelievable even at the moment to some people mainly the youths of today that
kept adamant on the warnings and dangers of being a prostitute, a homosexual, a
Hetero Sexual and equally having unprotected sexual intercourse. All that the World Health Organization (WHO)
had warned that partners should be truthful to themselves and take preventive
1.3 AIMS AND
know how far people have known about existence of the sexually transmitted
know whether the rate at which male are infected is the same at which the
females are infected.
recommend preventive measures on how to avoid contacting the sexually
transmitted diseases and give appropriate treatment to avoid rapid spread of
the deadly disease.
specify the age group that is mostly affected.
the objective of this study is in picking the types of sexually transmitted
diseases under study one by one and uses statistical methods predicting what
their incidence rate will be in the year 2005 and 2006.
OF THE STUDY
The study has revealed that the
awareness of the existence of sexual transmitted disease. Through this study, their causes, sources and
mode of transmission have been have been highlighted. Having known all these a greater result can
be achieved by embarking on the program against sexually transmitted disease,
such as making use of condom as one of the preventive measures and total abstinence
as another measure. Another important
significance is that, the health standard of the people is improved, while the
death effect and other consequences of sexually transmitted diseases are
minimized by profiling good medical attention and the use of skilled
Finally, by achieving all these goals,
we can have a good social economic planning for the present and future
The Federal Medical Centre Umuahia
(FMC) is my scope of study. It has ten
wards (10) two medical ward on each for male and female, two surgical wards one
each for male and female, two surgical wards one each for male and female,
maternity wards with eighty (80) beds, one ward with forty (40) beds for booked
patients while the other is for unbooked patients. Other are the pediatrics
ward with twenty (20) beds and a gynecological ward with fourty (40) beds. But my area of concentration is based on the
steadily increase of the sexually transmitted diseases (STDS). And we are taking a more look at the four
varieties of sexually transmitted diseases (STDS). And we are taking a more look at the four
varieties of sexually transmitted disease (STDS) such as gonorrhea, syphilis,
arthritis and Aids. This study is faced
with a lot of limitations and some problems encountered din the project
research must not be overlooked. Some
problems as: problem of finance, a lot of expense was made on the process of
collecting the data. Time factor is
another problem that delays the collection of data.
In addition, the duplication of the
data and the production of this project work also included. On this note I was to study records from the
year 1995 – 2002. This further more
confined to the statistical analysis only, which has to do with the incidence
rate of the sexually transmitted disease under study as arranged or grouped
into sex, age groups and years. There
will also be some forecast or production of the type of sexually transmitted
disease under study in a specifically year to come.
The Federal Medical Centre Umuahia (FMC) is my scope
of study. It has ten wards (10) two
medical wards (2) on each for male and female, two surgical wards (2) one each
for male and female etc. But my area of
concentration is based on the steady increase of the sexually transmitted
diseases (STDS) such as Gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, Arthritis. This study is faced with a lot of limitations
and some problems encountered in the project research must not be
overlooked. Some problems are
factor while delays the collection of data
null hypothesis is that there is no difference between age group. This means that the incident rate of age
group is the same. The alternative
hypothesis is that the incident rate of age group differ which reconcile that
the incident rate is not he same.
null hypothesis is also used for the incident rate sex that means that there is
no difference between incident rate of sex then. The alternative hypothesis is that the
incident rate of sex is differ which states that the incident rate of sex is
not the same.
is an existence of sexually transmitted disease (STDS) virus
on how to prevent or cure the sexually transmitted diseases (STDS) have been
cooperation is needed from all and sundry.
i. STDS: Sexually
ii. AIDS: Acquired
Immune Deficiency Syndrome
iii. HIV: Human
iv. VIRUS: Any living thing that is smaller than
that causes the spread of infections disease.
It can only be seen with the use of microscope.
v. SEROLOGICAL TEST FOR HIV: Blood test
allows the presence of anti bodies to HIV in the body to be dictated.
of unwanted child out of her
IMPOTENCY: Inability of a man to impregnate a
due to the destruction of the manhood by sexually transmitted disease(s).
MARITAL SEX: Sex before marriage
RACE: Different type of people living in the
INFERTILITY: Inability to bear a child or children.
LYPHOCYTE: A group of white blood cells that helps to
prevent infections from spreading
ANTI-BODY: This is an organism that is not a part of
body but was being introduced to that body
PERINATAL: This simply means mother
HOMO-SEXUALITY: This is sexual intercourse between
of the same sex e.g male to male.
LESBIANISM: Sexual intercourse between people of
the same sex eg female to female
SEXUALITY: This is a sexual
persons of opposite sex, example female to male.
INFECTION: An inversion of the body (entry) of a
disease causing organism
CONDOM: A preservative or “rubber” sheath
made of latex) used to cover the penis or virgin by women during sexual
intercourse to prevent pregnancy or to protect against disease.
WHO: WORLD HEALTH ORGANISATION
TRANSMISSION: This is simply the way at
a disease or disease can be transferred over from a carrier to a non
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