This project has the aim
of studying the uses of contraception drug among female student of faculty of
science in Osun State Polytechnic, Iree. The study employed the use of
statistical method like measure of central tendency, stratified sampling
techniques, analysis of variance (ANOVA), co-efficiencies of correlations. The
result of the analysis shows that there is relationship between the student and
their attitude towards contraceptives.
Title page i
Table of content vi
of study area 2
of the study 3
encountered during data collection 3
of the study 4
collection techniques 4
of study 4
of terms used in the project 5
of data 16
of analysis / statistical tools 16
of central tendency 18
of variance 19
of correlation 21 – 22
analysis and presentation 23
of central tendency 23
4.1a 23 – 24
sampling techniques 26
of variance 28
of correlation 29 – 31
of the analysis 31
Conclusion and Recommendation 32
5.4 Recommendation 32
1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION
All over the world statement, thinkers
and demographers have been concerned with the rapid growth of population rate
in the last four decades. A current rate of growth. The world population as at
21 May, 2010; the human population of the world is estimated by the United
State Census Bureau to be 6822, 200,000.
Annual birth have leveled at about 134
million per year since their peak at 163 million in the late 1990’s and an
expected to remain constant. However, deaths are only around 57 million per
year and are expected to increase to 90 million by 2050, because births out
number deaths, the world’s population are expected to reach 90 million between 2040
The rapid increase in human population
over the course of the 20th Century has raised concerns about whether earth is experiencing
over population and scientific consensus that is the current population expansion
and accompanying increases in usage of resources are linked to threats to the ecosystem.
Since as rising level of atmosphere Carbon oxide, global warming and pollution.
Due to this pace of growth, strategies
were undertaken to curb the problem. This led to the emergency of “Contraceptive”
drug. Other terms commonly used includes birth control, fertility regulation, Planned
Parenthood and responsive parenthood, Huge amount have been spent on family planning
and family planning programs just in a bid to popularize its importance and
adoption in tertiary institution. Therefore, it is expected that there is a widespread
knowledge of contraceptive drug among adolescent especially female student.
Although, the adoption of there
information varies, some have interesting and positive attitude due to passive orientation
while others see the usefulness and go a head to practice it. Sexual activity
is particularly high among unmarried youth and those who happen to use contraceptive
and those who did not use with social concern in mind but more for personal reasons
such as to avoid illegitimate births.
Contraceptive drugs should not only be
seen in the view of population reduction alone but also in line with the misfortune
that is associated with indiscriminate sexual intercourse. A growing population
of adolescent not only initiates sexual intercourse at early stages, but also engages
in having multiple sexual partners. Hence a high incidence of illegally induced
abortion. In most cases, restrictions on abortion force women to rely on illegal
abortion and as most young people are poor, they often use unqualified abortimist,
which leads to frequent severer health consequence such as sterility and death.
It is therefore time for the society to recognize
that the health and even the lives of its young ladies must not be scarified in
an attempt in an attempt to prevent their sexual activity. In most developing
countries young ladies get married later and more start sex before marriage. This
exposing them to the risk of unwanted pregnancy and unwanted sexually
transmitted diseases (STD’s) including HIV/AIDS. In these countries 20% to 60%
of young women pregnancies and births are unwanted most coming sooner than planned.
These pregnancies put young women health at risk through child bearing or unsafe
abortion. Increasingly, early parenthood means lost education as will as with
life long loss of earnings. Evidence in Nigeria
shows that induced abortion increasing and is considered to be a major cause of
material mortality which quite high in Nigeria.
The question to ask ourselves now is,
has the introduction of contraceptive use in any way helped to stem the rate of
unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STD’s) among women especially
female student in the tertiary institution? The answer to this question abore is
1.1 BACKGROUND OF SURVEY AREA
The Osun State Polytechnic, Iree was established
on 12th October, 1992. it was one of the satellite campuses of the Polytechnic
Ibadan before it become an autonomous institution. Faculty of science was one of
the structures inherited from the Polytechnic Ibadan before being developed to
meet its present status.
At the inception, the faculty consists
of the following these departments namely;
Later Food Science and technology and Applied
Science were established but very recently, the computer science department was
reshuffled to another newly created faculty, the faculty of information and
It is however pertinent to state that faculty
of science is one of the oldest faculties in the institution and its importance
to the polytechnic system is undoubtfully enormous. It is robust intellectually
socially and politically. Faculty of science is the oldest faculty of the six
existing faculties in the institution; the faculty is playing an important role
in the institution and the nation as a whole because of its contribution to
academic and technological advancements. The faculty consists of five departments,
namely Department of Applied science, Food science and technology, Mathematics and
statistical, Micro biology and Department of science laboratory technology.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1. To determine if there exists a linear
correlation among the different department of faculty of science and the use of
2. To know the best method to be used
between the measure of central tendency and the stratified techniques.
3. To test for the significant different that
exists between student and the attitude towards the contraceptives use.
ENCOUNTERED DURING DATA COLLECTION
At the inception of this work, I envisaged
little problem to arise knowing that the people deal with are highly educated
ones. The major problem that was encountered was resistance from few ones to fill
the questionnaire but due to a little encouragement and enlightment some saw
the topic as very interesting, while some still showed embarrassment. A few
numbers of respondents gave religions reason for the non-response to some questions.
Some female respondents, especially some ignore at some of the questions because
of their personal nature.
Another major problem that was
encountered includes those of non-response and missing questionnaire. Having follow
them up for about 4 days in their department to retrieve the questionnaire but
due to carelessness on their part explained how it got miss during rush hours of
classed and lecture period. Although I anticipated a 5% loss. However, many of
these constraints were overcome by patience and humility on the part of the researcher
to ensure that we can be sure of a reliable and scientific enterprise.
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of embanking on this project
is for the benefit of the student, society, government etc. This motivated me
to do work on sample survey to show that survey work is good in enumerating the
number of student that is using contraceptive drugs among female student
especially excerpt people that is use it in the faculty of science.
1.5 DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES
In eliciting for information, the method
used was the questionnaire. A core comparable questions already developed and tested
in the form of a questionnaire was employed.
One hundred copies of the questionnaire
were printed and administered in different department of faculty of science in
the polytechnic. These included, departments of mathematics & statistics,
food science technology, micro biology, Applied chemistry and science
laboratory technology. The distribution of the questionnaire was mostly done by
the researcher himself, although with the help of two of his friends.
The questionnaire contained 31 questions
which was divided into 2 main section, personal data and knowledge or altitude
of student towards contraceptive. About 13 of the questions were closed ended
and 15 open ended. This was inevitable due to the nature of the research in
studying their attitude toward contractive drugs. To ensure that respondents
fill free to answer the question the name of the respondents was not required.
1.6 JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
Contraceptive as a method or means of reducing
family size is an issue that almost everybody knows about. To ensure that every
grown up man and woman use it will be nothing but hyperbolizing the concept.
The knowledge of contraceptive does not however lead invariably to adoption of
contraception. It is therefore essential to develop effective programs that provide
accurate reproductive health information and useful services to young people
who have been largely left out of the family planning revolution.
Young ladies therefore should both be guided
and encouraged to postpone sex or provide them necessary effective method of contraceptive.
Although many people think that providing family planning services to youth
will promote promiscuity. There is no evidence for that yet. The high incidence
of premarital sexuality is attributable to increasing moral attitudes and the slacking
blocking of traditional requirement for premarital casualty. An ever increasing
number of adolescent migrate from rural homes to urban centres in search of job
opportunities for higher learning or apprenticeship, this breaking away from constraints
traditionally applied by family members and village communicates, evidence from
the 2009 (Nigeria Demographical Health Survey (NDHS) has not only confirmed the
high incidence of premarital sexuality in urban centres but also has revealed that
the incidence of premarital sexual behaviour is not limited to urban centres.
These youth typically engage in sexual relations with out contemplating the dangerous
consequences which include unwanted pregnancies, abortions, AID (Acquired Immunes
Deficiency Syndrome) and other sexuality transmitted diseases.
In response of these issues the International
community at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD)
in 2009, for the trust time recognized formally that adolescent reproductive and
sexual health involves a specific set of needs distinct from adult needs. The
ICPD also stressed that previously health service has largely ignored young
people need consequently the programme of action emphasized that young people of
both sexes are typically poorly informed about how to protect themselves from
unwanted pregnancies and sexuality transmitted diseases as mentioned earlier.
Therefore, this suggests the need to provide
young people with comprehensive information and access to services in the country.
It is however on this bases that this research was designed to indeptly study
the positive and negative attitude of students have towards the use of contraceptives
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS USED IN THE PROJECT
Sampling: - It cab be explain
as random sample, is one obtained by separately the population elements or
units into non-overlapping group culled strata and then selecting a simple
random sample from each stratum.
Correlations: - This is
the degree of relationship that exists between three or more variable X1
X2 X3 represent the variables under consideration. Then we
can let X11 X12 X13 ……. Represent or denote the
values assumed by the variable X1 and X21, X22,
X23 denote the value assumed by the variables X2 and so
on. With this notation a sum as X21 + X22 + X23
+, +, + , + X2N could be written ∑X2.
of Variance (AWOVA): - Another
important distribution is the F-distribution, named in honour of R.A Fisher,
who first developed and describe it. The random variable F is also a test statistic
and is define as the ratio if unbiased estimates of two population variances i.e.
F = S / S . The F-distribution is used for inferences
of this kind. The procedure of testing for the equality of three or more means
is provided by statistical techniques which represent an important application
of F-distribution or Analysis of variance.
of Central Tendency: - A
set of data has a number of important features. If the data set consists of
number we are not often interested in two characteristics of the data. The first
is a number that is considered most representative of the set e.g. mean, median
of Dispersion: - These measures
serve to locate the “center” of the distribution but they do not reveal how the
items are spread out or scattered on each side of the centre. This later characteristic
of a distribution is commonly referred to as the dispersion e.g. variance,