THE LITHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AFIKPO AND IT ENVIRON

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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00005191

No of Pages: 81

No of Chapters: 7

File Format: Microsoft Word

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the Study    

1.2      Aim and Objectives of the Study

1.3      Scope of the Study

1.4      Location of the Study Area

1.5      Physiographic and Climate

1.5.1   Climate

1.5.2   Relief

1.5.3   Vegetation

1.5.4   Drainage

1.6      Methods and Materials

1.6.1   Field investigation

1.6.2   Outcrop mapping

1.6.3   Litholog Construction

 

CHAPTER TWO

REGIONAL GEOLOGY OF THE STUDY AREA

2.1      Regional Tectonic Setting and Structural Framework

2.2      Regional Stratigraphic Setting and Basin Fill

2.3      The Stratigraphic Fill of the Southern Benue Trough 

2.3.1   The Asu River Group

2.3.2   The Odukpani Formation

2.3.3   The Eze-Aku Group

2.3.4   The Awgu Shale 

2.3.5   The Nkporo Group

2.3.6   The Mamu Formation

2.3.7   The Ajali Formation

CHAPTER THREE

LITHOLOGIC DESCRIPTION

3.1      Outcrop Description

3.2      Unit A

3.2.1   Location 1 (behind Ibii Primary School)

3.2.2. Location 2 (Marlum Quarry Pit)

3.2.3   Location 3 (Crushed Stones Quarry Amasiri, the Quarry Entrance)

3.2.4   Location 4 (Ozara-Ukwu shale)

3.2.5   Location 5 (Abandoned minning pit, 300m from Amasiri junction)

3.3.     Unit B

3.3.1   Location 6 (Road Cut near Macgregor Hill along Amasiri-Afikpo Road)

3.3.2   Location 7 (Located At Ebonyi Hotels, Afikpo)

3.3.3   Location 8 (Ngodo-Mkpuma Hill)

3.4      UNIT C

3.4.1   Location 9 (Ibiam Girls Secondary School)

3.4.2   Location 10 (Road-cut along Owutu-Ogbu Road, Afikpo)

3.5.     Unit D

3.5.1   Igneous intrusion

3.6      Outcrop  Description

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 THEORY OF GEO-ELECTRIC SURVEY AND METHOD OF ANALYSIS 

4.1      THEORITICAL BACKGROUND

4.1.1   Current Flow and Equipotential Distribution

4.3      FUNDAMENTAL ELECTRODE ARRANGEMENTS FOR CARRYING OUT   D.C RESISTIVITY SURVEYS 

4.4      THE WENNER ARRAY

4.5      Resistivity of Earth Materials

4.6      True Resistivity

4.7      Automated dc Resistivity Profiling and Resistivity Imaging

4.8      The Materials for Geophysical Survey

4.9      Methods of the Geophysical Survey

4.10    Precautions and problems

 

CHAPTER FIVE

RESULTS AND DISCULSION

5.1      Transverse 1

5.1      Transverse 2

5.3      Transverse 3

5.4      Transverse 4

 

CHAPTER FIVE

ECONOMIC GEOLOGY AND HYDROGEOLOGY

6.1      ECONOMIC GEOLOG

6.1.2   Dolerite

6.1.3   Kaoline

6.1.4   Limestone

6.1.5   Sandstone

6.1.6   Shale

6.1.7   Ironstone

6.1.8   Water

6.2      Hydrogeology

 

CHAPTER SEVEN

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

7.1      Summary

7.2      Conclusion

 7.3     Recommendation

REFERENCES

APPENDIX: Traverse 1a, along Ai, Afikpo road, after timber shade. (100m)

APPENDIX I A: GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY SHEET Ozara-Ukwu Ridge

 

APPENDIX II A: GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY SHEET Before Ibii Junction

APPENDIX II B: GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY SHEET along Abakaliki-Afikpo road

APPENDIX III A: GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY SHEET Macgregor

APPENDIX III B: GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY SHEET Macgregor, along Abakaliki-Afikpo road

APPENDIX IV A: GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY SHEET After 1bii Junction

APPENDIX IV B: GEOPHYSICAL SURVEY SHEET: A Pathway After 1bii Junction

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background of the Study   

This work involved the observation, description of various rock types and their field relationships. These rocks give information on the general Geology of the area. Generally, a number of geophysical exploration techniques are available which enable an insight to be obtained rapidly into the nature of subsurface layers. These include geo-electric, electromagnetic, seismic and geophysical borehole logging techniques. The choice of a particular method is governed by the nature of the terrain and cost consideration. These methods have been used extensively in groundwater investigation, geologic mapping and engineering site investigation Etu-Efeotor and Akpokodje, 1990; Obiakor and Chukwudebelu, 1992; Okwueze and Ezeanyim, 1985; Mbipom and Archibong, 1989.

In geophysical investigations for lithological boundary, ore prospecting, water exploration, depth to bedrock determinations, sand and gravel exploration. The electrical resistivity method can be used to obtain quickly and economically, details about the location, depth and resistivity of subsurface formations, (Udoinyang, 1999). The basis of the electrical resistivity method employs the measurement of electrical potential associated with subsurface electrical current flow generated by a Direct Current (DC) or slowly varying alternating current source (AC).  Factors that affect the measured potential include the presence and quality of pore fluids and clays (Boyld, 1999).

Wiebeng, (1955) noted that the ratio of the current applied, with a geometric factor K, which depend on the electrode separation gives the quantity termed apparent resistivity. This study describes a direct current geo-electric investigation for subsurface lithological boundary impacts of Afikpo in Southern Benue Trough, Southeastern Nigeria.  The aim of this investigation is to obtain from the geophysical characteristics of the study area, a meaningful delineation of the subsurface lithological boundary and other sedimentary structures across different rock type for better understanding of the subsurface geology of the study area.

 

1.2      Aim and Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this research is to study the lithologic characteristics of the Afikpo and it environ with a view to delineate its lithological boundary using resistivity profiling. 

1.3      Scope of the Study

(i)            Description of the exposed outcrop sections of the study area.

(ii)           Mapping and demarcation of the rocks encounter in to lithologic units.

(iii)         Determination of the geo-electric sections at each profiling point in order to detect the change in resistivity between different lithologies.

(iv)         Inferring of geo-electric and geologic layers from the inverses resistivity plots.

(v)           To integrate the results above to construct and digitize a geological map of the study area.

1.4      Location of the Study Area

The study area is geographically located in southeastern Nigeria. The geographical limits are defined by Latitude 5051’N and 5056’N and Longitude 7051’E and 7056’E, and within part of the 1:25,000 Sheet 313 (Afikpo NE) topographic map. It covers an area of about 60 km2(sixty square kilometers).  Major access roads into the area are through the Abakaliki – Afikpo Road, Okigwe – Afikpo Road, and Okposi – Amasiri – Afikpo Road, as well as Cross RiverAfikpo Road.

Good network of roads link up such areas as Owutu Edda, Ibi, Amasiri, Amuro and Afikpo which are the major towns in the study area. Figs. 1.1a and Fig.1.1b are the location maps of the study area showing the access roads and major towns.

 Fig. 1.1a: Map of Nigeria showing Ebonyi State and location of the study area 


Fig 1:1b Accessibility map of the study area.


1.5 Physiographic and Climate

Physical features such as climate, relief, vegetation, drainage pattern, soil and land use are observed in the study area.

1.5.1 Climate

The study area has two distinct seasons, a wet season that lasts for eight months, and a dry season that lasts for four months. The period from April to November form the rainy season while the months of December to March are dry.  The months of December are cool and dusty because of harmattan while the period from February to March is the hottest. The annual rainfall varies between 1500mm and 2000mm, with the driest month recording less than 300mm of rainfall (Inyang, 1978; Obi, 2001).  Relative humidity in the study area is generally high and ranges between 60% and 95% during the rainy season and fall below 60% during the dry season (Monanu, 1978; Nimako, 2008). Fig. 1.2 is the climatic map showing the average rainfall of study area.


 Fig. 1.2: Map Southern Nigerian showing Climatic condition with respect to the annual rainfall of the study area (Inyang, 1978).

1.5.2 Relief

The area consists of gently undulating lowlands with alternating sandstone ridges and shaly swales (Fig. 1.3).  The average elevation of the study area is about 100m above sea level.  Elevation within the sandstone ridges could however be up to 120m above sea level. The outcropping rocks differ in their resistance to weathering/erosion. The erosional patterns are therefore controlled by the lithology as well as the structure of the rocks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Fig. 1.3: Vegetation and topography map of the study Area. The photograph (Fig.1.3) was taken at Ozara-Ukwu ridge, Afikpo. The picture was taken on the peak of the ridge. Elevation is 210 ft. above sea level, while GPS Coordinates are 05o 54/N, 07o56/E.

 

1.5.3 Vegetation

According to Ilorje (1978), the study area belongs to the Guinea Savannah type of vegetation, which could further be classified as a park land Savannah which occur as a result of long period of free devastation by man and fire, Igbozuluike (1975), described the vegetation of the area as rain forest type (Fig. 1.4).

 

Fig. 1.4: Vegetation of the Study Area (Modified after Igbozuluike, 1975).

1.5.4 Drainage

The study area falls within the Cross River drainage basin. The river systems that drain the study area include the Iyioha River, the Otoni River, the Elummahi River, the Iyiokwu and the Cross River, with their tributaries.  These rivers empty into the Cross River drainage system east of the study area.  The drainage pattern varies from dendritic to trellis.  Fig. 1.5 is the drainage map of the study area.


Fig. 1.5: Drainage map of the study area.

1.6 Methods and Materials

This study was carried out in three phases as follows;

i.                  Field investigation.

ii.                  Geophysical techniques

iii.                  Interpretation

1.6.1   Field investigation

This involves field mapping and lithologic logging of outcrop sections to provide data for lithofacies and paleoenvironmental interpretation.  Outcrops were studied lithologically with their attributes and characteristics recorded with representative samples taken in places.

Sample locations and elevations were obtained using Global Positioning System (GPS). 

Sketches of lithologic logs of notable outcrop sections were produced.  

The attitudes of the beds and other structures were measured using the Rangers Compass. 

Collected samples were appropriately packaged, labeled and sealed in sample bags.

Instruments and materials used include:

a.              The Sheet 313 (Afikpo NE topographic map) covering the study area

b.              Measuring tapes and rulers

c.              Rangers compass

d.              Digital camera

e.              Hand lens

f.               Geologic hammer

g.              Ranging poles, and

h.              Sample bags

i.               Dilute Hydrochloric Acid (HCl).


1.6.2 Outcrop mapping

The mapping was carried out using 1:25,000 Afikpo NE (Sheet 313) topographic map as base map.  Several outcrop sections of the sandstone were studied and logged.  The lithologic and sediment logic characteristics of the outcrop sections were captured using a logging format designed to provide an insight into the vertical variation in lithology, texture (grain size, sorting, roundedness), sedimentary structures, fossil content, bed thickness, and contact types.  The lithologic logs were described in details for each outcrop studied.  The outcrop locations (co-ordinates) were geo-referenced and elevation above sea level recorded using the Global Positioning System (GPS).

Representative samples were taken from all the logged sections for laboratory processing and more detailed textural and compositional analysis.  Structural features such as dips and strikes of beds, faults and joints/fractures orientations were measured and described.  Photographs and sketches of important sedimentary and structural features were also taken.

The mapping was done by examining and describing the outcrops in detail.  The mapping exercise was done using the simple traverse and compass method.  The various rock types were delineated using exposed contacts where they are available and by inferences using topography, soil type and vegetation.  Unconformable contacts were mapped using high discordance in dips of lithologic units.

1.6.3 Litholog Construction

The construction of lithologic log of vertical sequences of important sedimentological features is a good way of interpreting depositional systems and environments of deposition for an outcrop (Visher, 1965; Zervaset al., 2009). A table containing important sedimentological characteristics was prepared for each of the logged sections.  The tables with the sketches were used to construct digitized versions of lithologic logs. The important sedimentological parameters used in the litholog constructions include bed thickness, lithology, percentage lithology, type of basal contacts (gradational, sharp, or erosional), grain size at the base, grain size at the top, type and intensity of bioturbation, physical sedimentary structures, fossil contents as well as other stratigraphic information. These parameters are the key inputs for creating sedimentary logs in SEDLOGTM software. Sedlog is a multi – platform intuitive graphical    user interface software package for creating graphic sediment logs (Zervaset al., 2009).   

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