is the heart of all social intercourse. Whenever man has come to establish
regular relations with one another, the nature of the systems of communication
created them; the forms these have taken and the measure of effectiveness they
have attained have largely determined the chances of bringing communities
closer together or making them one.
It is the aim of this research to find
out how important communication is to secretarial administration and the
problems associated with it.
A number of past related literature
were examined as it relates to
communication and its importance in the administration of a secretariat.
The questionnaire was designed,
validated and administered on the respondents. Data gathered thereof were
analyzed using simple percentage analysis.
By and large, it was discovered among
others that communication helps in the dissemination of the goals of the
organisation especially to a secretary, it is also used for the organising of
human material resources.
It was however, recommended intreallia
that communication outfits should rehabilitate their network and promote dialoged
by making more use of non technical language in their communication.
To this end, the researchers,
considering that the interest of new issues will continue to grow, realises
that the importance of the new order we seek is not only a goal but a stage in
a journey. It is continuing quest for more within all organisations. This
research represents what the researchers believes they have learnt. And this
above all, is what they wishes to communicate.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Approved page ii
Background of the Study 1-7
Statement of the Problem 7
Purpose of the Study 8
Significance of the Study 8
Research Question 9
Delimitation of the Study 9
Limitation of the Study 9
Definition of some Terms 10
Literature Review 11
Definition of Communication 11-12
Channel of Communication and their
Types of Communication 20-24
Importance of Effective Communication 24-25
Communication Patterns in Organisation 26-32
Problems Associated with Communication 32-34
Prospects Associated with Effective
Research Methodology 39
Instrument for data Collection 40
Validation of the Instrument 40
Method of data Analysis 40
Presentation, Analysis and
Interpretation of Data 41-47
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations 48
Summary of Findings 48
Appendices (A and B) 54-56
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Communication services started
in 1886 when the British colonial power in Nigeria established a wireless
contact between Lagos
under the CABLE AND WIRELESS COMPANY. This was followed by the establishment of
telephone services in government offices in Lagos. By 1928, the first service trunk had
extended to the hinterland reaching Ilorin,
Jebba and Calabar. Further, the service extended to the principal town of the
country reaching Kano by 1952.
was purposely developed to support the colonial administrative set up and as
such, services were developed in two parallel schemes. The internet services
were provided by the governments posts and telecommunications (P &T)
Department while the external services were carried out by the CABLE AND
WIRELESS COMPANY. This parallel scheme persisted up to 1984 even though, after
independence in 1960, government took over the CABLE Company known as NIGERIA
EXTERNAL TELECOMMUNICATION (NET) a limited liability company. When NET was established
in 1963, it was jointly owned by government and the CABLE AND WIRELESS on equal
The second phase of taken over came in
1972 when the government acquired 100% of NET shares. Over the four development
plans expenditure, the set objectives were quite ambitious but actual
implementations over these period was less impressive. They were:
the end of first plan in 1968, the country had installed 22,000 main telephone
the second planned period from 1970 to 1975, the network stood at 52,000 main
telephone lines. The second planned period also ushered in the use of satellite
for International Gateway in Lagos
with standard A – EARTH Station at Lanlate in Oyo State.
third planned period from 1975 to 1980 saw the network grow to 188,000 main
telephone lines, 5,000 telex lines and the extension of the Euro-West Africa
submarine cable via Abidgjan to Lagos.
fourth phase from 1981 to 1985 brought in a second international Gateway at
state in 1983. The total installed capacity as at the end of 1984 was 250,000
main telephone lines.
With effect from January 1985,
government decided to make fundamental changes in the structure of the
communication section. NET and telecommunication arm of P & T were merged
to form what is known as the Nigerian Telecommunication limited, by the then
minister of communications col. A.A. Abdullahi, while the postal unit still
remains government department called Nigerian Posts (NIPOST) responsible for
postal services only.
NITEL was given the responsibility of
providing integrated internal and external services with autonomy as a
commercial organisation to support itself without government subvention. The
ownership was however, 100% government.
The world in pursuit of general economic
development, started experiencing a progressive departure from government and
state owned natural monopolies to commercialized and privatized public
utilities and enterprises. On the heels of these melodramatic changes, are the
emerging technologies which are redefining the traditional methods of business
practices and social integration.
In consonance with the burgeoning trends world –wide, coupled with the focus
on performance of parastatals and government owned enterprises as the raison
d’etre for the creation by the federal government of the defunct Technical
Committee on privatization and commercialization (TCPC), the Nigerian
telecommunication eventually gained the
status of a fully commercialized but government owned entity in January 1992.
With the subsequent signing of the performance agreement by NITEL Ltd in May,
1992, the Onus of sourcing and
appropriating funds and the general management of human and material
resources of the company fell on it’s shoulders.
Understandably therefore, and in pursuance
of the initiative towards the deregulation of it’s telecommunication sector,
the federal government formally inaugurated the Nigeria communication
commission (NCC) on the 16th of July 1993 to set standards,
regulate, monitor and arbitrate on all activities in the eight areas open to
private sector participation.
Before the renaissance period,
communication was a commodity for the monarchs in the old British days. Within
that period, the government dispatched to people, what they felt the
people should be. The press was for the
kings in which case, the press was used as a government property. This was
during the authoritarian days of British, but the period of libertarian days
In this case, telecommunication during
the use of analog which was manually operated was efficient and effective. The
development of communication came when Electro-mechanical mode of
telecommunication was invented via the digital which is presently in use,
having gone computerized.
Personal computers are becoming a daily
tool for many students walking across campus are often listening to their
Walkman. Fax machines are so popular
that fact-food restaurants like MeDonal and Mr Gigs use them to take orders.
Another communication development is the
cellular car phone. Dipaoli (1989) reports that nationally, the industry is
attracting customers at the rate of 80,000 per month- a growing faster than
VCRS certain technological innovations seem well suited to enhance rather than
limit communication. In organisation communication, for example, video
conferencing may come to be used by many companies on a routine basis. Some
experts propose that telecommunication can be used a major new force for
organisational design and redesign. According to Keen in 1987, business
communication will inherently involve organisational, as well as technical
change, and as we have already seen, there is also great potential for
educational application of technology, many of which might ultimately encourage
rather impose communication.
Of necessity, the new communication
technologies have vastly increased the amount of intercultural communication,
people of different culture have more information about each other and are more
accessible than ever before and are also more interdependent.
The introduction of the Global system
for Mobile Communication (GSM) in August 2001 strengthen the development of
communication. We can see that we owe a great deal to communication technology, especially in the administration of a secretariat, as well as
our modern way of life when we telephone a record album, we are enjoying the
benefits of communication developments,
As a result of these development in
communication, we are much more aware of the world in which we live. By opening
a newspaper or magazine, a secretary can find out immediately about world or
local news, this serving as reference point. Other source of reference in
secretarial administration that have been brought about by communication are
television set which by turning, events taking place in other parts of the
world can be viewed. By dialing a telephone, one can speak with people around
Developments in communication have also
allowed us to share what we know with other people, which may benefit them.
Doctors all over the world share information about curing diseases, engineers
share information pertaining formulas and methods of building stronger
structures, scientist share discoveries about our environment. Above all it
(communication) has given rise for personnel in secretariat and other
organisation to pass on knowledge to others to add to their collective store of
In short, the development of
communication has helped us to share our success, failure, discoveries,
misconceptions and truths.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This study attempt to find out the
importance of communication in secretariat administration. The quality of
services rendered by NITEL and other communication establishments have been
attracting criticisms from people in all works of life, the government
functionaries businessmen, the media and the general public and staff of NITEL
are all very critical of communication services, this complaints range from
those favoritism to unfriendly attitude of management to subordinates and of
subordinates to customers.
Most government establishments do not
put their customers in the prime place as they are supposed to be. There is now
Keen competition as individuals now own private firms where they render
telecommunication services, and to compete means in applying the marketing
The research also hopes to investigate
if these criticism are justified, or if they are never rundown of the
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of this research work are as
identify some importance of communication vis a vis secretariat administration.
identify the problems associated with communication
find out some types of communication equipment used in NITEL and other
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Students who wish to go into a research
of this nature will benefit from this
study, as the researchers will make appropriate references to the work,
which will help communicators to decide
on how to make stronger, their techniques of redundancy.
Also, the management and staff of any
given secretariat will benefit from this study as it would help the management
more to attain a new information and communication order-essentially a series
of new relationship towards subordinates.
The following research question have
been asked as a guide for the study.
1. What are the importance of
communication to secretariat administration?
are the problems associated with communication in NITEL?
are the types of communication equipment used in NITEL and other communication
DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
Communication problem is not only the
problem confronting the management of NITEL. Other problems include the
procurement of communication transmission equipment, financial constraints,
repairs and replacement of modern communication gadgets, general administrative
problems, to mention but a few.
It will not be possible to address all
these problems within this work because of the short period allowed and meager
resources of the researchers. In view of this the work is restricted to THE
IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION IN SECRETARIAT ADMINISTRATION.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
There are numerous importance of
communication, but it will not be possible to cover all these importance within
the short period and meager resources of the researchers. In view of this, the
work is limited to SECRETARIAL ADMINISTRATION.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
(a) NITEL: Nigerian telecommunication
limited. A government department solely responsible for handling
(b) ANALOG: A computer which can perform operations
on numbers being represented by some physical quantity. NITEL then used the
manually operated type.
ELECTRO-MECHNICAL: A conversion of manually operated telecommunication
services to connect with electric power and machinery.
A computer which can
perform operations representing quantities as binary or decimal.
(e) TECHNOLOGY: A
systematic application of knowledge to practical task in industry by technical