The study examined the
effect of training as a correlate on productivity of workers in the First Bank
Nigeria Plc and Access Bank Plc located in Lagos State. The study examined four
research questions and four research hypotheses which were formulated in the
null forms. The significance of the study was also examined which its scope was
limited to First Bank Nigeria Plc and Access Bank Plc located in Lagos State. Extensive
and related literature were reviewed in relation with various authorities under
the following sub-headings: Theoretical framework, concept and nature of training, the need for training
employees, concept of management
productivity, identifying training needs, factors that affect
employees’ productivity, the outcomes of training of workers, types of training
technique, and relationship between training and employee productivity. The methodology which
further dwelt on the following: research design, population, sample and sampling technique,
instrumentation, procedure for data collection and procedure for data analyses.
Data analyses were carried out in which the bio-data and the questions were
analysed using the simple percentage frequency count while the hypotheses
formulated were tested with the application of the Pearson Product Moment
Correlation Coefficient statistical tool at 0.05 level of significance. At the
end of the exercise, the following results were obtained: training
will significantly enhance productivity among bank workers, there is a
significant gender difference in the performance of bank workers due to
training, there is a significant difference in product knowledge of low income
and high income bank workers, and training will significantly improve the
performance of bank workers.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
of Contents vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of Problem 4
Purpose of Study 5
Research Questions 5
Significance of the Study 6
Scope of the Study 7
Limitations of the Study 7
Definition of Terms 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 10
Theoretical Framework 10
Concept and Nature of Training 13
The Need for Training Employees 20
Management Development 22
Identifying Training Needs 29
Factors that Affect Employees’ Performance 32
The Outcomes of Training of Workers 36
Types of Training Technique 38
Between Training and Employee Productivity
THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 54
3.1 Research Design 54
3.2 Population 54
3.3 Sample 55
3.4 Instrument 55
3.5 Validity 56
3.6 Reliability 56
3.7 Administration of Instrument 57
3.8 Data Analysis 57
FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 58
4.1 Descriptive Analysis of Bio-Data 58
4.2 Analysis of Data from Questionnaire 64
4.3 Hypothesis Testing 71
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER
for Further Studies 83
to the Study
The low productivity
of employee could be seen as malady affecting performance of organizations. The
cause of the problem could be as a result of lack of staff training on workers
productivity. There may be many reasons why banks invest in training and
management development for their employees. Several factors contribute to the
low productivity of workers in the Nigerian banking industry. Foremost among
the factors include; late payment of workers, poor salary and non-sponsoring of
training programmes for workers on-the-job and off-the-job training programmes.
Lack of training of bank workers may usually lead to decline in productivity.
Gender, in an
organization where they do lots of marketing like the banking industries and
insurance companies, research have shown that female staff perform better than
their male counterparts. This is because the female marketers take their job
more serious than the male marketers. They put more interest in their job by
being very neat, looking attractive, being bold and mastering the job while the
male marketers are less productive because it could they are not well trusted
by their clients, they have other business they are doing elsewhere which make
them not to have interest in their work. Their inability to compete with their
female counterpart could be as a result of lack of adequate training in the
Low income could be a
barrier to high productivity. For example, bank workers produce low quality
services when they are not exposed to periodic training and retraining. They
become non competitive with their colleagues in the other industries who are
exposed to constant training. In many cases, the non-exposure to staff on the
training programme has caused the folding up of banks in the past and even now.
This is because when staff fail to produce maximum services due to lack of
training on the job, the resultant effect could be a folding up of the affected
organization. The employee put their interest in the job when there is
motivation through better pay. A situation where bank workers are not trained,
they would lack the ability to handle or operate the equipment that are
available in the bank which will make their production to be low and it could
bring about low income or deduction in their salary. Low income in an
organization could be caused as a result of lack of training of staff on
product knowledge. Training has always been of great importance to organization
and people at work. It forms part of the motivational tools that improves
Training of bank staff
is needed in order to enhance workers’ self-esteem, to boost workers’ morale in
the industry. Training could help to induce certain behavioural changes in the
employees. For example, many bankers do not understand the importance of
customers. They do not exhibit the cordial relationship between worker and
customer. Most of them are very snobbish and insultive and do not relate well
with their colleagues and customers, most of the bank workers lack good
exhibition of marketing skill which will make them not to relate well with their
customers. Training could be made a continuous process that should last through
an employee’s entire working life because low and middle employees need to
adapt to new skills and technologies while managers and top management
personnel need deeper knowledge and understanding of their jobs, the jobs of
others, good understanding of where and how their jobs fit into the wider
organizational pattern. Poor staff/customer relationship could be as a result
of lack of training on staff/customer
relation in an organization, especially, First Bank and Access Bank.
Bank workers require
training because the banking work is a very sensitive job which requires
expertise and knowledge of the job. It is on that basis that the research is
undertaking a study of staff training as a correlate of workers’ productivity
in Lagos State with reference to First Bank of Nigeria Plc and Access Bank Plc.
1.2 Statement of Problem
The problem inherent
in non-exposure of bank staff to organizational training cannot be
over-emphasised. This is because, there exists the problem of lack of male
training programme, lack of funds for the training programme, for both
on-the-job and off-the-job training programmes, poor productivity knowledge by
the workers as a result of non-exposure to relevant training programmes and so
For instance, a
situation where bank workers are not exposed to on-the-job training, the
resultant effect could be lack of the abilities and expertise to handle the job
effectively, and this by extension, will result to low job performance and
dismal job productivity, which may even result to the closure of the bank. Poor
job training has led workers to exhibit poor customer relations and poor
quality of service due to non-exposure to periodic training and retraining on the
job. Also, workers in the bank become non-competitive with their counterparts
in other banks if they are not trained to live up to expectation and be at par
with current events or developments in the contemporary banking industry. No
wonder, there is poor exhibition of marketing skills and negative job behaviour
which is counter productive to the bank as a result of lack of training.
The above identified problems gave rise to the
examination of staff training as a correlate of workers’ productivity in First
Bank and Access Bank Plc.
1.3 Purpose of Study
To evaluate the impact of training on workers’
productivity in the banking sector.
To examine whether gender difference exists in
the productivity rates of bank workers due to training.
To find out whether low income bring about how
To ascertain whether training of employees can
indeed improve workers’ performance in the banking sector.
Is there any effect of training on workers’
productivity in the banking sector?
Is there any gender difference in the
productivity rates of bank workers due to training?
Does low income bring about productivity?
Can training indeed improve workers’
performance in the banking sector?
The following hypotheses
will be formulated and tested in the course of the study
1. H0: Training will not significantly enhance
productivity amongst bank workers.
2. H0: There will be no significant gender
difference in the performance of bank workers due to training.
3. H0: There will be no significant difference in
product knowledge of low income.
4. H0: Training will no significantly improve
performance of bank workers.
of the Study
This study will be
beneficial to some individuals and corporate organizations which include:
The bank workers would
benefit from the finding and recommendations of this study, in that it will
enable them to have better insight of the importance of training and its effect
on job productivity and corporate profitability in the banking sector.
The banking system is
an organization which requires training and retraining of its staff for better
and higher productivity and corporate profitability. With the findings and
recommendations of this study, managers in the investigated banks would be able
to have better understanding concerning the training and retraining of their
staff and its positive effects on productivity.
Bank management will
through this study, understand better that exposing workers to constant
training and retraining, will bring about workers change in behaviour and
attitudes towards their customers.
of the Study
This study was
restricted to the effect of training as a correlate on the productivity of
workers in the First Bank of Nigeria Plc and Access Bank Plc located in Lagos
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The study was limited by the chances of getting
the people within the staff of the banks easily for the collection of data
since they are mostly busy with field operations. Time and protocol of
obtaining clearance from the branch managers before having access to interact
with their workers especially on official hours also will elongate the study.
1.9 Definition of Terms
This means training somebody for something in order to be somebody or
something; the act of giving teaching and practice to an individual or a worker
in order to bring to a directed standard of behaviour, efficiency or physical
total volume of goals and services produced per worker within a specific period
of time in a given production unit.
Workers’ Productivity: This
has to do with the total output or result of work obtainable from the input of
employees in any organisation. In other words, it is the total production level
of all the workers in a company, industries, schools and other parastatals
within the private and public sectors.
Refers to manners, moral conduct and treatment shown to or towards management
Staff Training: This
means the exposure of bank workers to on-the-job training so as to gain
knowledge for high productivity.
Product Knowledge: This is a situation where workers’
production in terms of service is below expectation by management.
Relationship: This refers to the staff-customer cordial
relationship which is healthy for growth of the bank.
Behaviour: This refers to the overall behaviour of bank staff either
to the fellow staff or to the public (customers), which may be positive or