This study examined the Relationship between Socio-Economic Status and Dimensions of
Religiosity among Students of Tertiary Institutions in Lagos State.
In this study, relevant and extensive literatures were reviewed in sub-titles.
The literature surveyed and explored the works of scholars, researchers and
religionists that are in line with the topic of this research. The descriptive
research survey was adopted in this study in order to assess the opinions of
the selected respondents, with the application of the research questionnaires
which were used to collect necessary information from the samples, and the
sampling technique was applied in order to select the appropriate samples of
this study. Three hundred (300) respondents, made up of 150 males and 150
females were selected from University
of Lagos and Lagos State
University. Also, 4 null
hypotheses were generated and tested accordingly, with the application of the
Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) in testing hypothesis one, while the independent
t-test statistical tool, was used in testing hypothesis two, three and four
respectively, at the alpha level of 0.05. At the end of the data analyses, the
results that were obtained, showed that:
one found that there is a significant relationship between socio-economic
status of students and their commitment to religion (P < 0.05; df = 2 and
297; F-cal =; 40.10, F-tab = 3.11).
two revealed that there is a significant impact of religiousity on student
socio-economic status (P < 0.05; df = 298; t-cal = 4.61; t-tab = 1.96).
three indicated that there is a significant difference between the religious
commitment of students from the high socio-economic status homes and those from
the low socio-economic status homes (P < 0.05; df = 298; t-cal = 3.64; t-tab
four showed that there is no significant gender difference in the religious
commitment of students due to socio-economic status (P > 0.05; df = 298;
t-cal = 0.71; t-tab = 1.96).
on the above findings, the following recommendations were made: It is
recommended that parents should endeavour to bring up their children in
Christian religious way, because, when parents train their children well, they
(children), would be able to imbibe the good religious culture which their
parents have bequeathed to them. This is because, it has been found that the
genesis of students’ non-religious commitment at adolescent age, is because,
parents did not teach their children the ways of God at the early stage. So,
parents should teach their children how to commit themselves to the things of
God when they are very young and they would not depart from it even when they
grow up. It is also recommended that religious studies should be made a
compulsory course in all the tertiary institutions. Whether a student is arts inclined
or science-inclined, he/she should be made to offer religion as a compulsory
course. The course should be named “religious and moral instruction”, which
should be aimed at imbibing and inculcating religious ethos in the life of the
students. If this is done, it will help in curbing immoral and delinquent
behaviours that are inherent in most of our youths of school-ages in Nigeria. It is
equally recommended that lecturers in the institutions under review, should
ensure that they exhibit characters and moral rectitude worthy of emulation by
their students on campus. This is because teachers are surrogate parents of
children, as well as great models for students.
Title Page i
Table of Contents viii
CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1
to the Study 3
3.3 Population of Study 44
3.4 Sample Size and Sampling Technique 45
3.5 Research Instrument 45
3.6 Validity of Instrument 46
3.7 Reliability of Instrument 46
3.8 Administration of Instrument 48
of Instrument 49
for Data Analysis 50
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 51
Analyses of Respondents’ Bio-Data 51
of Samples’ Responses together with the Research Questions 57
of Students’ Responses to the Interview Questions 67
of Findings 72
of Findings 72
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY,
for Further Studies 82
to Knowledge 82
Social inequality is a fundamental characteristic of
the society. Rich or poor; advantaged or disadvantaged; privileged or
underpreviledged: each contrast speaks to differences among people that are consequential
for the lives they lead. Whether in describing patterns of inequality or
examining the consequences of inequality, the results depend upon how
inequality is conceptualized and measured. Socio-economic status is among the
most prominent concepts in inequality research. The term “socioeconomic status”
refers to the relative hierarchical placement of a unit (such as an individual,
a community) along a gradient stratified by social and economic resources
The sociologist, Marx Weber (1958,) conceptualized
inequality along three related tracks – class, status and party. Each was
understood as a basis for power and influence. Whereas, class focused on
economic resources, and party referred to political clout, status was
understood as honour and prestige. For Weber, status groups were hierarchically
arrayed on the basis of distinctive lifestyles, consumption patterns and modes
of conduct or action.
Religion is defined by Kenny (2004) as “belief in the
existence of a supernatural ruling power, the creator and controller of the
universe, who has given to man a spiritual nature which continues to exist
after the death of the body”. On the other hand, Arnolds and Adams (2000) have
defined religion giving their backgrounds and sources of information. These
varied views on religion maintain a Constance;
that religion, is the belief in spiritual beings. The term ‘religion’, whatever
its definition, refers to certain characteristic types of data namely: beliefs,
practices, feelings, moods and attitudes (Nyoyoko and Owete, 2000).
Friedrick (2000), defined religion as “feeling of
absolute dependence, absolute as contrasted to other relative feelings of
dependence”. Religion can also be defined as human beings’ relation to that
which they regard as holy, sacred, spiritual or divine. Religion is commonly
regarded as consisting of a person’s relation to God or to gods or spirits.
In a given society, religion as a social institution,
plays a prominent role in the lives of individuals or faithfuls. Also, in every
religion, be it Christianity, Islam or African religion, individuals are
stratified into high or low socioeconomic status. Individuals are placed
according to their socioeconomic class in any society. Religion as an integral
part of the society, is always in contact with the society, and always in
contact with these socioeconomic classes (Nzeribe, 2003).
The religious commitment of students who fall within
the three socioeconomic status of high, middle and low will be examined in this
study in relation to or as an influence on dimensions of religious commitment
of students in tertiary institutions.
1.2 Background to Study
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