The study examined the
prevalence and effect of drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism on students’
academic performance in Ajeromi-Ifelodun Educational District of Lagos State.
It also explored some relevant and related literature which was carried out in
sub-headings. The descriptive research survey design was applied in the
assessment of the samples’ opinions with the use of the sampling technique and
the questionnaire. A total of 160 (one hundred and sixty) respondents were
sampled and used in this study to represent the entire population of the study.
Five null hypotheses were generated and tested in this study using the
independent t-test and the One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistical
tool at 0.05 level of significance. At the end of the analyses, the following
results emerged: there is a significant effect of drug abuse on students’ academic
performance in schools, there is a significant effect of smoking on students’
academic performance in schools, here is a significant effect of alcoholism on
students’ academic achievement in schools, there is a significant difference in
the academic performance of students who abuse drugs, smoke and drink and those
who do not, and there is a gender difference in the academic performance of
students due to drug abuse in schools. Based on the data analyses and
conclusions thereof, the following recommendations were made: Drugs should be
kept out of the reach of children and students; and guidance and counselling
services should be carried out in our school on regular basis to educate
students on the negative tendencies of drug abuse.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
CHAPTER ONE 1
to the Study 1
of the Problem 4
of the Study 5
of the Study 7
and Delimitation of the Study 8
Definition of Terms and Variables 8
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE
2.0 Introduction 9
of Drug Abuse 10
2.2 Types of Drug, Smoking and Alcohol 11
2.3 Causes of Drug Abuse, Smoking &
2.4 Effects of Drug and Alcoholic Abuse on Adolescents’ Behaviours/
Academic Performance 21
Signs and Symptoms of Drug Abuse 24
2.6 Prevention and Control of
Drug and Alcoholic Abuse 26
2.7 Effects of Drug Abuse on Social Interaction or
2.8 Influence of Drugs on Mental Health 34
2.9 Influence of Drug Abuse on Students’
Academic Performance 35
2.10 Influence of Drug Abuse/Alcoholic Abuse and
Summary of Literature Review 41
THREE: Research Methodology 43
3.2 Location/Area of Study 44
Size and Sampling Technique 44
of Instrument 45
of Instrument 46
for Data Collection 46
of Data Analysis 46
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS 47
4.1 Introduction 47
Analysis of Data 47
of Findings 54
FIVE: DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, SUMMARY,
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 55
of Findings 55
of the Study 63
of the Study 64
for Further Studies 66
1.1 Background to the Study
Drug refers to
substance which by virtue of the chemical nature they possess, is capable of
influencing the structure and function of living tissue (Ogunlade and
Oladehinde, 1995). Drugs include, those synthetically produced as well as those
obtained from plants and the concentrate, extracts etc. Rotimi (2000) define
substance abuse as any pattern of substance use that results in repeated
adverse social consequences, related to drug taking such as failure to meet
work, family or school obligations and interpersonal conflicts. Substance abuse
can begin at any age. There are some parents who deliberately introduce their
children to alcohol consumption at an early age.
The rate at which
adolescents indulge in the act of drug abuse and alcoholism is remarkably high.
Drug abuse and alcohol are important problems that affect school teenagers at
earlier ages. Young people more often experiment with alcohol, tobacco and
other drugs during the secondary school period. Rotimi (2008) posited that 73%
of students under his study said that they have used alcohol before; 65% had
used tranquilizers; cocaine 6%, opium 5%, methamphetamine 4%, heroin 3%. He
further stated that 79% of the students indicated social reasons such as
partying, 29% said that they indulge in the acts for academic reasons.
Nevertheless, 16% of the students said that their academic performance had
suffered as a result of drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism.
Riyadh, Nilen (The America Public Health Journal, 2007) stated that prevalence
rate of alcohol use, binge drinking, cigarette and marijuana smoking were significantly
high among students with better academic performance, (P<0.1) compared with
students with better academic performance, whereas in South Africa, prevalence
rate was higher among students with better academic performance (P<.05).
Moreso, Shehu and
Idris opined that current use of cigarette and cannabis occurred significantly
more in the male population. No significant sex differences were noted for
other drugs (Salicylates, analgesics, antibiotics and stimulants).
However, it is
conspicuous that the use of drugs, smoking and alcoholism is present among
secondary school students, regardless of gender difference. Therefore, this
study intends to examine the prevalence and effect of drug abuse, smoking and
alcoholism among senior secondary school students within the area of intended
Drug abuse, smoking
and alcoholism are considered to be a major public health particularly among
students. Rotimi (2000) in his study on prevalence of drug abuse observed that
94% of the respondents had used drugs before. Alcohol was the commonest
substance of abuse (75%). The negative impact of drug use was seen mostly on
their academic performance, thus, the use of drugs, smoking and alcoholism was
prevalently very high.
The worrisome trend in
the abuse of drugs smoking and alcoholism and its numerous consequence has
revealed that there is a high prevalence. Eneh and Stanley, (2004) conducted a
study on the pattern of substance use among one thousand and forty nine (1049)
students of four secondary school in Port-Harcourt, River State, Nigeria. He
used self administered questionnaire that showed that eighty seven percent
(87%) of the respondents were using at least one substance.
consequences of drug abuse and alcoholism span well beyond the parameters of secondary
school as the users themselves, the school and the community are affected. The
acts are associated with increased absenteeism from class and poor academic
performance. The majority of injuries, accidents, vandalism, sexual assaults,
rape, fighting, armed robbery, thuggery and other crimes in and off the school
premises are linked to alcohol and other drug use.
Moreso, some factors
responsible for drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism are as a result of influence
of friends at parties, school mates relations at night parties, family
background and the media among others. Some students indulge in the acts of
ignorance of the effects.
Thus, it is imperative
to shed light on the prevalence and effect of drug abuse, smoking and
alcoholism in the local educational district of the intended study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problem inherent
in drug abuse, smoking, alcoholism and their effects on students’ academic
performance cannot be overemphasized. This is because, abuse of drug, smoking of
cigarette, Indian-hemp, cocaine or and heroine, and reckless in-take of
alcohol, militate against students’ high academic achievement in schools.
Not only that, the
prevalence of assorted criminal acts and or school disciplinary problems
perpetrated by students these days cannot be separated from their bent minds
which is as a result of drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism. For this reasons,
many students are involved in rape cases, stealing, fraudulent activities in
examinations, violent demonstrations, sexual recklessness, disrespect to both
school authorities and parents, bullying and other immoral acts that are
against the norms and values of any decent society or ideal school system.
The above identified
problems gave rise to the examination of prevalence and effect of drug abuse,
smoking and alcoholism on students’ academic performance in schools.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
This study intends to
investigate the prevalence and effect of the drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism
on students’ academic performance in Ajeromi Ifelodun Educational District. The
following are the specific objectives of the study:
to establish the effect of drug abuse on
students’ academic performance in schools.
to examine the effect of smoking on students
academic performance in schools.
to investigate the effect of alcoholism on
students’ academic achievement in schools.
to examine the difference in the academic
performance of students who abuse drugs, smoke and drink and those who do not.
to examine reasons adolescents engage in drug
abuse, smoking, and alcoholism.
to establish whether there is gender
difference in the academic performance of students who abuse drugs in schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research
questions will be asked in this study:
Does drug abuse affect students’ academic
performance in schools?
Does smoking affect students’ academic
performance in schools?
Will alcoholism affect students’ academic
achievement in schools?
Is there any difference in the academic
performance of students who abuse drugs and those who do not?
Why do adolescent engage in drug abuse,
smoking and alcoholism?
Will there be any gender difference in the
academic performance of students due to drug abuse in schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
hypotheses will be formulated and tested in this study.
There will be no significant effect of drug
abuse on students’ academic performance in schools.
There will be no significant effect of smoking
on students’ academic performance in schools.
There will be no significant effect of
alcoholism on students’ academic achievement in schools.
There will be no significant difference in the
academic performance of students who abuse drugs , smoke and drink and those
who do not.
There will be no gender difference in the
academic performance of students due to drug abuse in schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will be
useful by providing information to students who ignorantly smoke, drink and
abuse drugs. It will shed light on the effects of the aforementioned on their
health, academics and social functions. It will be useful to students who are
not practicing any of the above.
Also, the findings
will be useful to schools, homes and the society at large. It will give useful
information to anyone who may be interested in researching on the topic or
and Delimitation of the Study
findings of the study will be limited to five senior secondary schools under
Ajeromi Ifelodun Educational District. The schools will be selected from the 36
schools under Ajeromi Ifelodun Educational District.
Definition of Terms and Variables
other to avert misinterpretation of words, the following will be interpreted
based on the context of the study.
refers to the extent or proportion at which students commonly drugs, drink and
smoke within a particular period of time.
means the consequences or result of drug abuse, smoking and alcoholism on
students who consume them. For example, unruly behaviour, absenteeism and so
is the achievement or grades acquired by the students in the achievement test
that will be administered.
These are the chemicals consumed by students e.g. barbiturate, amphetamines,
heroine, narcotic, nicotine, valium etc.
is the wrong and harmful use of drug to enhance performance.
is an act of inhaling the smoke of burning tobacco, bush encase in cigarette or