PHYTOCHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL ANALYSIS OF WILD CASSIA (CASSIA SIEBERIANA)

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No of Pages: 33

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ABSTRACT

Phytochemical screening and elemental analysis was carried out on water and ethanol extracts of Cassia siberiana leaves. The antimicrobial activityy and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the leaves extract were also studied. Preliminary phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoidss, anthraquinones, saponins, glycosides, and tannins. Antimicrobial studies showed that the ethanol extract had considerable activities and significant inhibition against staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pyogen, salmonella typhi, shigella dysentery and Eschenchia coli. Ethanol extract had higher zone of inhibition (32mm) against salmonella typhi at (0.5µg/ml) with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 4 x 102 µg/ml. The MIC ranges from 2 x 102 µg/ml to 5 x 104 µg/ml.





TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE……………..…………………………….............................. ............................i

DECLARATION…...……………………...............................................................................ii

APPROVAL PAGE….............................................................................................................iii

DEDICATIONS.......................................................................................................................iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………..…………......v

TABLE OF CONTENTS………………………………………………………......................vi

ABSTRACT……………………...……………...............................................................…..viii


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 STUDY BACKGROUND.. 1

1.2. STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM... 2

1.3. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDIES. 3

1.4.JUSTIFICATION.. 3

1.5. SCOPE AND LIMITATION.. 4

1.6. AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY.. 4

1.6.1. AIM... 4

1.6.2. OBJECTIVES. 4


CHAPTER TWO

2.0. LITERATURE REVIEW... 5

2.1. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF WILD CASSIA.. 5

2.2 ECOLOGY OF WILD CASSIA.. 6

2.3. ACTIONS OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICAL FROM WILD CASSIA ON CERTAIN MICROBES  6

2.4. PROPAGATION OF WILD CASEA.. 7

2.5. WILD CASSIA PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN AFRICA.. 7

2.6. IMPORTANCE OF WILD CASSIA.. 8


CHAPTER THREE

3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD.. 9

3.1. MATERIALS: 9

3.2. STUDY AREA.. 9

3.3. STUDY DESIGN.. 9

3.4. COLLECTION OF SAMPLE.. 9

3.5. PLANT EXTRACTION.. 10

3.6. DETERMINATION OF PH.. 10

3.7. PROCEDURE.. 10

3.7.1 QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS. 10

3.7.2 TANNINS. 10

3.7.3 SAPONIN.. 10

3.7.4 FLAVONOIDS. 11

3.8 ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING.. 11

3.8.1 PREPARATION OF AGAR MEDIUM... 11

3.8.2 PREPARATION OF AGAR PLATES. 11

3.8.3 TEST ORGANISMS. 11

3.8.4 PREPARATION OF STOCK SOLUTION OF EXTRACTS. 11

3.8.5 IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL SENSITIVITY TEST. 12

3.8.6 MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION (MIC) 12


CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.. 14

4.1 RESULTS. 14

4.2  DISCUSSION.. 17


CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.. 20

5.1 SUMMARY.. 20

5.2 CONCLUSION.. 20

5.3 RECOMMENDATION.. 21

5.2 REFERENCES. 22

 

 

 


 


CHAPTER ONE

 INTRODUCTION

1.1 STUDY BACKGROUND

Phytochemical screening Is the process of tracing the medicinal value of plants constituent in some chemical substance a definite physiological action on the human body. (Jigna etal, 2006 and Allero etal., 2006).

Microbial analysis is the screening process of finding the presence of micro organisms in a certain plant which capable of causing disease or infection to the human body.

Medical plant are known to contain substance which could be used for treatment purposes or used to produce drugs. Many of such plant are known to be used primitive to alliviate symptoms of illness have been screened to have medicinal importance, some of which include;- Azadirachtandia (dogon yaro), V. Amygdalina (bitter leaf), Allium sativum (Garlic).

Cassia sieberiana, drumsticks tree, is a tree in the native to africa. It range from 10-20 metres in height and has very bright yellow flowers. It is used for multiply medical purposes in Africa and is found in the secondary jungle of a forest (ILDIS,2013). Individual of this species are anywhere from 10-20m in heigh. The leaves are arranges from a dark grey to black. The lenticels are horizontal and a reddish color. The leaves are arranges in leaflets that contains 7-10 pair of opposite leaves. The upper side of the leaf is moderately shiny while the bottom has very fine nerve with stipules that are deciduous (Von maydell et Al., 2000).

This plant has both flower and fruit. The flower are a very bright yellow during the dry season, which is from February through March. Flower are arranged either upright or in pendulous racemes ranging from 30-50cm. There are five sepals with 5 bracts. The petals are 15-20cm long while the green sepals are 6-7mm in length. There are a total of 10 stamens. The fruit ranges from a dark brown to black color. The fruit is indehiscent in that it say attached to the tree for an extended amount of time. September through February is when the fruit reaches maturity (von maydell et Al.,2001).

The tree is named sindia in the wolof language, and sinjan in Bambara language, in which literally means "long breast," a reference to the shape of the seed pods.

Cassia sieberiana is found in multiple parts of Africa including the southern part of the Sahel, Senegal, Sudan, and Uganda. It is also found in East Africa, it is also found in the northern part of Nigeria, where it is locally called "lungu" in Jigawa State.

Cassia sieberiana grows best in well drained, humid soil with an annual rainfall of approximately 20 inches. It typically grows as a shrub in very dry regions. These shrubs grow in groups of other plants, they usually never grows alone. In Nigeria the sweet extract of the stems is used for food. Chew sticks can also be made from the root-wood part of the plant.

Cassia sieberiana has many medicinal usages. The roots are used as a diuretic and vermifuge that are used to treat disease such as elephantiasis, leprosy, diarrhea, hermorrhoids, dysentery, and venereal diseases (Von Maydell et al., 2001). It can also be used to help symptoms releted to the menstrual cycle and as a pain killer. Other uses include treatment for the ears with the root and seed. Seeds are also used as sedatives. The root-bark also is additionally used for dropsy, swelling, and gout. Lastly, the leaves help with the symptoms of arthritis and rheumatism. (WHO, 1998). Parts of the plant have also been used as teeth cleaning twigs (CDCS, 2000). The reason Cassia sieberiana has so many medicinal uses is the hydrogen cyanide that is found throughout the tree, the tannins and astringents in the trunk-bark and root, and glycosides, saponins, and steroids in the trunk-bark, root, and seeds (Grieve, 1999). Cassia sieberiana was found to have antimicrobial activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1, Neisseria gonorrhea, and Africa swine fever virus. In the same study, it was shown that the roots contain flavonoids, anthracenic derivative, and tannin (yoro,2001). In another study, this plant was shown to considerably inhibit HIV- Ic replication because of the tannin that is found in the roots and bark (Lincon, 1998).


1.2. STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM

The proximate composition of leaves and seeds of this plant (Cassia sieberiana) as reported by (faruq et al. (2002) gave promising results. However, there is dearth of detailed information on the nutritional profile of the seeds, in relation to livestock feeding, within the guinea savanna environment of Nigeria, where this plant is relevant. This is very important since' the nutritional and chemical value of a feedstuff bis partly influenced by geographical location which is shaped by factors like soil and climatic condition of the place ( Fred et.,al. 2004). Therefore, to gather reliable information regarding the use of a feedstuff as livestock feed, the chemical and the nutritional characteristics of that feedstuff need to be carefully assessed in order to prevent errors in predicting animal performance and environmental effect impairing the economics of animal products and even in humans.

This study was, therefore, designed to evaluate the chemical and nutritional composition and the microbs present in the seeds and leaves of wild C. sieberiana plants growing in North West of  Nigeria in order to generate data for the development of this plant as an alternative plant proteins source in the developing country of the tropics.


1.3. SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDIES

Cassia sieberiana contains calcium oxalate in abundance. The leaves contain flavones ( quercitrin, isoquercitrin), an anthraquinone (rhein) and tannins (11%). The roots contain tannins (up to 17%), anthraquinones and sterols. The purgative action can be ascribed to the anthraquinones. The flavones cause diuresis and have antibacterial and anti- inflammatory activity. An assay for antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) showed a low activity of the extracts against trypanosomes. Leaf extracts were found to be active against Staphylococcus lutea, Mycobacterium phlei, Bacillus subtilis and Proteus sp., but not against Staphylococcus albus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Escherichia coli. The termite-resistant wood change from white or yellowish-pinkish to dark red upon exposure it is finely textured, heavy, hard and difficult to work.


1.4. JUSTIFICATION

Research have shown that Cassia sieberiana leaves when extracted with absolute ethanol for 48 hours using cold maceration method. Reconstitute in aqueos solution, fractionated with ethylacetate and butanol. The extracts bwill be subjected to phytochemical, microbial, toxicity experiment and anti- ulcer evaluation using ethanol_ induced gastric ulcer in laboratory rats. A standard anti- ulcer agent, cimetidine was used as reference.

 

1.5. SCOPE AND LIMITATION

This research will be carried out in order to determine the phytochemical and micro organisms in C. sieberiana. And it is limited within dutse, jigawa State. Dutse is a city located in North West of  Nigeria. It is the capital city of jigawa State.


1.6. AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

1.6.1. AIM

The aim of this research is to determine some phytochemical and microorganisms presence in (Cassia sieberiana) plant

1.6.2. OBJECTIVES

The objective of this research project are the following

• Identify flavonoids, glycosides, and tannin from Cassia

• Identify other phytochemicalsb( saponin, terpens etc)

• Identify Staphylococcus cuireus, Ecoli, salmonella and other anti microbial activities.



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