study was carried out on the knowledge, attitude and perception of Covid 19
pandemic in Nigeria. Mass gatherings at sporting and religious events attract
huge crowds, creating high-risk conditions for the rapid spread of infectious
diseases. The study was carried out in Ovia-North
East LGA, Edo state. During the first week of March, the surge of Coronavirus
disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases has reached over 100 countries with more than
100,000 cases. Healthcare authorities already initiated awareness and
preparedness activities beyond the borders. A poor understanding of the disease
among healthcare workers (HCWs) may implicate in delayed treatment and the
rapid spread of infection. The study aimed to investigate the knowledge and
perceptions of HCWs about COVID-19. A descriptive research design was conducted
among HCWs about COVID19 during the first week of March 2020. A 23-item survey instrument was developed and
distributed randomly to HCWs using social media; it required 5 minutes to
complete. Chisquare test was used to investigate the level of
association among variables at the significance level of p<0.05. Of 529 participated, a total of 453 HCWs
complete the survey (response rate: 85.6%); 51.6% are males, aged 25-34 years
(32.1%), and most of them are doctors (30.2%) and medical students (29.6%).
Regarding COVID-19, most of them used social media to obtain the information
(61%), a significant proportion of HCWs had poor knowledge of its transmission
(61%), and symptoms onset (63.6%) and showed a positive perception of COVID-19
prevention and control. Factors such as age and profession are associated with
inadequate knowledge and poor perception of COVID-19. As the global
threat of COVID-19 continues to emerge, it is critical to improving knowledge
and perceptions among HCWs. Educational interventions are urgently needed to
reach HCWs beyond the borders, and further studies are warranted. The study
recommended that social gatherings should be avoided to prevent the
spread of coronavirus.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Objectives of the study
Significance of the study
Scope of the Study
Limitations of the Study
2.1 Overview of Coronavirus
2.2 The virus, its origins and evolution
Effect of social gathering on control
of corona virus
Concept of social distancing
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Research design
3.2 Sources of Data
of the study
3.4 Sample size determination
3.6 Content of the
3.9 Method of Data Collection
3.10 Data analysis
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 Background of the study
disease 2019 (COVID-19), initially taken as “pneumonia of unknown etiology”,
emerged in December 2019, Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. The causative pathogen
was announced by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China
CDC) on Jan 08, 2020, to be a novel coronavirus (Al-Tawfiq et al., 2020),
lately named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
COVID-19 broke out in Wuhan in January 2020, and spread to the whole Hubei
Province, the rest of China and abroad with astonishing speed. On Jan. 31,
2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that COVID-19 constitutes a
"public health emergency of international concern". As of Feb 28,
there were 7,8961 cases confirmed in China, and 4,691 cases confirmed in 51
other countries. On that day, WHO increased the assessment of the risk of
spread and risk of impact of COVID-19 to very high at the global level.
gatherings at sporting and religious events attract huge crowds, creating
high-risk conditions for the rapid spread of infectious diseases. The 2000–2001
meningococcal meningitis outbreak after the Hajj pilgrimage illustrated this
threat of infectious diseases on global health security. The International
Health Regulations Emergency Committee of the World Health Organization (WHO)
declared Zika virus (ZKV) a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on
1 February 2016 (Simon, 2019). The media hype on ZKV transmission at the 2016
Rio Olympic Games diverted the attention of global public health authorities
from other lethal infectious diseases with epidemic potential. Attention and
resources must now be refocused on the continuing epidemic threat of the highly
lethal Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).
studies have shown the effects of social mixing patterns and distancing measures
(such as school closures and travel restrictions) on the spread of infectious
diseases and epidemics (Fred, 2016; Briese et al., 2020; Gautret et al., 2020).
A recent study showed how viral mutation can lead to an additional epidemic
peak (Reusken, 2020). However, few studies have explored the potential negative
impact of public gatherings and Holiday travel during an epidemic.
have been intermittent MERS-CoV community cases and hospital outbreaks (WHO,
2019), but no sustained epidemic. Hospital case clusters of MERS-CoV represent
the primary location where rapid human-to-human transmission of MERS-CoV have
occurred; although limited spread among family members has been observed.
SARS-CoV was also predominantly spread through nosocomial transmission, but the
epidemiological features of MERS-CoV remain less clear. While 90 % of reported
MERS-CoV cases have been from KSA, MERS-CoV has spread to 27 countries in
Europe, North Africa, Asia, USA, and the Middle East. All cases had travel
links with KSA or other countries in the Arabian Peninsula. As of 26 August
2016, 1,800 confirmed MERS-CoV cases have been reported to WHO from over 21
countries, including 640 deaths (35 % case fatality rate). MERS-CoV-related
mortality is significantly increased in patients with comorbidities such as
diabetes, renal disease, cardiac disease, lung and liver disease, or other
immunosuppressive conditions. There are no known effective treatments or
preventive vaccines for MERS-CoV (Adebayo, 2020).
1.2 Statement of the problem
Once again, the
world is currently experiencing a global viral COVID-19 pandemic. As of March
26, 2020 confirmed cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been reported to
be 478,446 and 21,524 deaths had been reported in more than 30 countries of the
Apart from the
intrinsic infectivity of the virus, population mobility and epidemic prevention
and control measures could affect the prevalence scale. Unfortunately, the
prevalence of COVID-19 encountered the Spring Festival Migration of China, the world’s
largest annual human migration as hundreds of millions of people rush home for
family reunions. In addition, the epicenter Wuhan is the capital of Hubei
Province of China. It has a population of more than 15 million, including
resident and floating population, and it situates at the transportation hub in
the central China area. As of Jan 23, 2020, more than 5 million people were
migrating out of Wuhan according to official accounts. Emergency monitoring and
close contact management in Wuhan was carried out since Jan 03, 2020; China CDC
Level 2 emergency response activated on Jan 06, and Level 1 emergency response
activated on Jan 15. On Jan 20, 2020, COVID-19 was included in the statutory
report of Class B infectious diseases, managed as Class A infectious diseases
by the National Health Commission of China.
The Chinese government locked down the Wuhan city on Jan 23, and then
locked down other cities of Hubei Province immediately after. By
Jan 25, 30 provincial governments in China activated first-level public health
emergency response. Hence, In addition to strict quarantine management,
substantial social distancing measures to limit population mobility and to
reduce within-population contact rates were executed almost in the whole
country. For example, public activities were canceled; communities adopted
enclosed management; the national holiday of Spring Festival and the winter
vacation were extended so that work resumption and school re-opening could be
extensively postponed. In addition, people were required to wear facemasks in
public. However, with all those efforts, the prevalence of COVID-19 was
1.3 Objectives of the study
main objective of the study was to examine the impact of infectious epidemic on
social gathering, using corona virus disease as case study.
understand the attitude, knowledge and perception of Corona virus.
2. To examine
the perception of social distancing on the spread of infectious epidemic
establish the symptoms of COVID-19 and the steps to take when these symptoms
1.4 Research questions
is the attitude, knowledge and perception of Corona virus?
is the perception of social distancing on the spread of infectious epidemic
are the symptoms of COVID-19 and the steps to take when these symptoms occur?
1.5 Significance of the study
prevention and control strategies need to be re-examined. Vaccine and antiviral
drug development is the ultimate way to defeat a virus, but it is
time-consuming. Non-pharmaceutical interventions to interrupt transmission
could be implemented immediately, gaining time for pharmaceutical development.
Briefly, there were three steps of non-pharmaceutical interventions for
reducing contact rates between susceptible individuals and infected
individuals. First, quarantine management, i.e. quarantining the infected, the
suspicious and their close contacts; second, social distancing to confine
within-population contact; third, locking down the epicenter to prevent further
exportation of infected and latently infected individuals to other regions.
management is a fundamental measure ought to be taken once the human-human
transmission is confirmed. Theoretically, if substantial social distancing
and/or epicenter lockdown were implemented early enough, there would be no
prevalence or no spreading. But realistically, it takes time for preliminary
investigation. Besides, rigorous measures would bring about deep social
influences and economic consequences. So, it is challenging to choose the right
response at the right scale in the right area at the right time, especially
when the transmission pattern and clinical characteristics were not fully
importance of non-pharmaceutical control measures requires further research to
quantify their impact. Mathematical models are useful to evaluate the possible
effects on epidemic dynamics of preventive measures, and to improve
decision-making in global health.
this study stands to provide additional knowledge to the body of existing
literature on the spread this pandemic disease to the world and of particular
reference to Nigeria. The result of this study will serve as good base or guide
for future reference and it will also encourage further research on the
importance of staying healthy. Furthermore, this study will provide relevant information
on the reasons for the spread of this disease from China to the rest of the
study will also be of benefit to researchers, academics and scholars in
carrying out research and academic works related to this study.
1.6 Scope of the Study
study focuses mainly on the impact of infectious epidemic on social gathering.
The study focused on corona virus disease. The study was also limited to health
workers in the outpatient department of University College hospital Ovia-North
East LGA and students in the University of Ovia-North East LGA. It will
therefore, be carried out among the students and health workers in the
outpatient department of University College hospital Ovia-North East LGA.
1.7 Limitations of the Study
The time frame was
not enough for the researcher to delve into the issue as comprehensively as
would have been desired. This also informed the decision to focus on one
department so the time would be invested in identifying and evaluating all
possible aspects of the subject matter so as to make the study as comprehensive
as possible. The use of a case study arguably has many limitations, however it
allows for a level of research that was commensurate with the nature of results
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