Bacteriuria is the presence of bacteria in urine. One hundred samples of
midstream urine were collected from 100 female students of department of
science Technology (those living off campus and those living in school hostels
within the age range of 17 – 31 years. Macroscopic and microscopic examination
of samples was done. Urine was cultured on blood agar, nutrient agar and
macconnkey. Identification of bacterial isolates using grams reactions and
biochemical tests was done. The organisms isolated were Escherichia coli,
Streptococcus spp, Psendomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella
aerogenes. The prevalence of bacteriuria amongst female students of science
Technology, IMT Enugu (age range of 27 – 31 years old living in hostels), was
29%, that is 16 out of 54 samples of urine investigated were significant
bacteriuria, which those living off campus within the age range of 27 – 31
years old were 7%.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Table of content
of the study
3.1.1 Bacteriological culture medial
(solid) composition and preparation
3.2.1 Sterilization of materials and
3.2.2 Collection of specimen
3.2.3 Transportation of materials/samples
3.2.5 Culture of sample/plating technique
3.2.6 Gram staining method
3.2.7 Preliminary identification of
3.2.8 Procedure of biochemical test for
RESULTS OF TABLES
DISCUSSIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
Incidence of bacteruria is the presence of bacteria in urine, (100,000 or
more pathogenic microorganism per ml).
Acute urinary infection may be preceded by associated with asymptonatic
bacteriuria (Roper, 1979). This includes
with renal bacteriuria and bladder bacteriuria.
Bacteriuria can occur with or without pyurie. The urinary tract comprises of the kidney,
bladder, ureter and urethra.
Bacterial infections are commonly referred to as urinary tract infection
(UTI). Urinary tract comprises a wide
variety of clinical entities, whose common denominator is microbial invasion of
any of the tissues that make up the tract, extending from the renal cortex to
the urethra meatus.
The normal urinary tracts remain sterile from the nephron to the internal
meatus. However, it is very important to
differentiate true bladder infection from ordinary exogenous are thrall
contamination. When the urinary tract is
infected, protein and pus cell in addition to bacteria are usually faunal in
the urine. The presence of pus cells in
the urine (pyuria) is a much more certain sign of urinary tract infection than
that of protein.
It was observed that these infections of the kidneys, urethia, urethrs,
and the bladder may result and the bladder may result with the present of pus
cell, red blood cells and microorganisms in the urine. It was also reported that in humans, bacteria
are commonly present in the lower urethra.
However, their number decreases in regions near the bladder. This decrease is caused by some antibacterial
effects exerted by the urethre lining.
The inflammation in the sensitivity of strech receptors involves in
mictuntion reflex. A scalding pain is
experienced while urine is being passed out.
This is due to the hyperlgesia of the nerve so that flow of urine becomes
an adequate stimulus to excrete them.
This leads to a frequency of bladder eraculation with only small volume
being passed out. A string inch to
micturate may be experienced even when the bladder is practically emptied. Apparently significant bacteriunia are some
time detected in the absence of clinical symptoms and are known as symptomatic
or covert bacteriuria.
Infection in the urinary tract can lead to serious disorder in the
system, these disorder include cystitis, pylonephritis, urethritis and calculi.
Cystitis is the inflammation of the urinary bladder. This condition may be acute or chronic. The symptoms include burning sensation when
urine is passed. The frequent need to
urinate, occasionally blood in the urine, and sometimes difficult in starting
to urinate, cystitis is rarely accompanied by high fever.
Pyelonephritis is a form of a renal infection, which spreads outwards
from the pelvis be the cortex of the kidney.
The origin of the infection is usually from the ureter or the blood
Urethritis is the inflammation of the
Calculi are formed by preciptation of urinar/constituents, a small amount
of organic material also being incorporated.
Deposition is favoured by highly concentrated urine, and by secretion of
excessive amounts or one or other constituents (oxalate, urate and calcium
salt). Calculi occur in the renal pelvis
or in the bladder. Although, some of the
latter originate in the kidney cystitis, urethritis, pyelonephritis and calculi
deserve prompt and adequate treatment.
Experience has shown that bacteria counts of over 100,000 organisms per
ml of urine usually indicate urinary tract infection but that counts of less
than in number can result from contamination.
It is generally accepted that 105 or more CFU 1ml (colony forming unit)
of urine is significant bacteriuria.
Though the patients may be symptomatic or asymptomatic (Anderson, 1976).
Bacteriuria was believed to be as a result of urinary contaminants washed
into the urinary tracts from the genitals by many agents and most of these
infections remain limited to the urinary tract, but some may lead to an
extensive disease processes involving other organs and sometimes leading to
The thra of infected urine, as a rule will include one more of the
Escheriolua coli is the most common organism that causes urinary tract
infection, accounting for greater than 80% of first infections and 75% of
recurrences of other gram negative organisms such klebsulla, Entensbacter,
proteus and pseudomonas are frequently seen in complicated or recurrent
infections and they account for an additional 10 to 15% of infection (Edward et
By middle age, however, the incidence of prostate bladder and urethral
disease rise rapidly, and the incidence of bacteriuris in elderly men
approaches that in women, Kunin also reveals that the presence of bacteriuria
in men over 70 years of age to be 3.5% and may be as frequent as 15% in
hospitalized elderly men. Age and sex
are contrasting in effect in urinary tract infection prevalence. Boy have the greater number of urinary tract
infection than girls in infanthood while in adult, the women bear higher number
(Kunin et al, 1979), due to the fact that their urethra are shorter and closer
to the rectum permitting bacteriuria to enter the more easily. These bacteria multiply in this urine
contained in the bladder walls.
main factors predisposing to bacteriuria are stasis. The sterility of normal urine flow rats in
the bladder is excreted before significant multiplication can occur. This interruption of urine flow can allow
bacteria to multiply and produce clinical infection. Other causes of bacteriuria are illicit sexual
intercourse, poor hygiene and use of spernucides increases the risk of urinary
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
aim of this work is to find out the incidence of bacteruiria amongst the female
students of Science Technology.
objectives are to enlighten the students and the public in general on the ways
in which they can avoid being infected.
3. To inform the students on the dangers of being
4. Lastly, to inform the students on the
OF THE PROBLEM
Female students living in the hostel have toilet facilities similar to
that of public use, they are exposed to the dangers of contacting urinary
infections. Illicit sexual intercourse and case of spermicides also cause
bacteria infections. Mostly female students in the hostel when they are
infected they will be having scratches in their vaginal, syphilis,
staphylococcus and other diseases etc. therefore, it is necessary to reduce the
incidence of bacteriuris amongst the female students in I.M.T Enugu. Thus,
proper sanitary condition of the toilet facilities and the school environment
as a whole is needed.
is not common amongst the female student of science technology living in the
is not common amongst the female students of science technology living in the
OF THE STUDY
(1) The cost of
reagents, materials and equipments for carrying out the practical aspects of
this research work is very exorbitant, since the institution does not have the
materials and the reagents and the equipments required for the research work,
costs a huge amount of money for the students to provide the necessary thins
(2) The time
duration for the study to be carried out was another factor that could have
limited this study.
Buyers has the right to create
dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when
you experience issue with the file received.
Dispute can only be created when
you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of
contents and content of the file you received.
ProjectShelve.com shall either
provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or
send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and
Conditions are applied.
Buyers are expected to confirm
that the material you are paying for is available on our website
ProjectShelve.com and you have selected the right material, you have also gone
through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE
BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.
In case of payment for a
material not available on ProjectShelve.com, the management of
ProjectShelve.com has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that
is available on our website within 48 hours.
You cannot change topic after
receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.