The extraction of alkaloid from Gaxcina kola (bitter Kola), Kola acuminated
(Oji Igbo) and Kola Vera (Oji Hausa) were carried out using 10%
enthanoic acid and 10% ethanol to separate the alkaloid from the residue. The
alkaloid was extracted using 5% ammonium hydroxide. From the sample results
obtained on alkaloid for the sample 9.16% oji Igbo, 6.20% oji Hausa and 8.20%
Bitter kola. It was observed that the percentage of alkaloids was highest in
Oji Igbo and the least for Oji Hausa.
TABLE OF CONTENT
- - - - - - - - - i
- - - - - - - - - ii
- - - - - - - iii-iv
of content - - - - - - - - v-vii
- - - - - - - - - - -
Introduction - - - - - - - - 1
Occurrence - - - - - - - - 1
Plant Source - - - - - - - - 3
Alkaloid Classification - - - - - - 3
Physiochemical Properties - - - - - 6
Presence of Nitrogen in their molecule- - - 7
Presence of Monoacid as a Biosynthetic
material - 7
Alkalinity of Alkaloids - - - - - - 8
Solubility of Alkaloids - - - - - - 10
Nut - - - - - - - - - 12
effects of kola nuts - - - 14
composition of kola Nuts - - - 15
2.0 Literature Review - - - - - - - 16
Materials and Methods - - - - - - 24
3.1 Materials - - - - - - - - 24
3.2 Reagents - - - - - - - - 24
preparation - - - - - - 24
3.4 Sample Collection
3.5 Sample preparation - - - - - - 26
3.6 Extraction of Alkaloid - - - - - - 27
3.7 Qualitative test of Alkaloid - - - - - 28
Results and Discussion - - - - - - 29
4.1 Results - - - - - - - - - - 29
4.2 Discussion - - - - - - - - 32
4.3 conclusion - - - - - - - - 35
4.4 Recommendation for further study - - - 37
References - - - - - - - - 38
- - -
- - -
are a class of organic compounds that typically contain nitrogen and have
complex ring structures. They occur naturally in seed bearing plants and are
found in berries, bark, fruits, roots and leaves. That is, they are derived
from plants. Often, they are bases that have some physiological effects.
of the earliest isolated pure compounds with biological activity. This was due
to the ease of isolation. The nitrogen generally makes the compound basic and
the compound exists in the plant as a salt. This, alkaloids are often extracted
with water or mild acid and then recovered as crystalline material by treatment
with base. Prior to approximately 300 years ago malaria was the scourage of
Europe, likely having been introduced
though the middle East. Malaria is caused by protozoa of the genus plasmodium,
contained as spores in the gut of the anopheles mosquitoes, which then spread
the spores to humans when they bites. As the Spanish and Portuguese explores
began to colonize. South America they discovered a cure for Malaria known to
the native Indians. This was the bark of the cinchona tress. The use of
cinchona bark to treat Malaria was first reported in Europe in 1633, and the
first bark reached Rome about 12 years later teas made from the bark cures
people suffering from Malaria, one of the major scourges in Europe at the time
and the bark became known as Jesuits bark. Because of the philosophical
differences between protestants and catholic, many protestants refused to be
treated with the bark. One of the most prominent protestants of the time, Olive Isolate
originally from cinchona Succirubra, quinine is one of 31 alkaloids with
related structure, and the principal ant malaria compound, in the plant.
Alkaloids have been defined in various ways, but one definition come fairly
close to actuality. An alkaloid is plant – derived compounds that is toxic or
physiologically active, contain nitrogen in a heterocyclic ring, and is basic,
has a complex structure, and is of limited distribution in the plant kingdom,.
Malaria is still a major problem throughout the world, and although synthetic
antimalaria drugs largely supplanted quinine as the treatment for malaria
during world warII, quinine is often once again the drug of choice as strain of
malarial have become resistant to the synthetic drugs. However, the search for
other antimalaria drugs from natural sources has also continued.
of the most promising new drugs is qinghaosu, isolated from Artemisia annua.
the most famous of the alkaloids are the slanaceae or tropane alkaloids. Plants
containing these alkaloids have been used throughout recorded history as
poisons, but many of the alkaloids do have valuable pharmaceutical properties.
Atropine, the racimic form of hyoscyamine, comes from Atropa belladonna (deadly
nightshade) and is used to dilate the pupils of the eye. Atropine is also a
central Nervous system (CNS) stimulant and is used as a treatment for nerve gas
poisoning. Scopolamine, another member of this class is used as treatment for
motion sickness. Cocaine from Erythroxylum coca, is closely related in
structure, is also a CNS stimulant, and
has been used as a topical anesthetic in ophthalmology. It is also drug abuse.
Cocaine was found in very small amounts in the original coca – cola formula,
but was not the main concern of the USDA at the time. Caffeine was considered
to be the major problem with the, drink. Datura stramonium (Jimsonweed), a
plant found in Virginia contains similar compounds.
ergot alkaloids come from a fungus, claviceps purpurea, which is a parasite on
rye and wheat. The ergot alkaloids are responsible for ergotism, resulting in
loss of limbs, or convulsive erogotism, resulting in hallucinations. In both
cases, death usually follows and out breaks of ergotism caused 11,000 deaths in
Russia as late as 1926. Today the problem is recognized and controlled. Some of
the ergot alkaloids have been used to trial migraine headaches and sexual
disorders in clinical applications. The most famous of these alkaloids is
lysergic acid diethylamide, LSD, a powerful hallucinogen that is a synthetic
derivative of the natural products. Similar alkaloids, particularly ergine, are
also found in Mexican morning glories, such as iponeoa tricolore3.
morphine alkaloids, derived from the opium poppy, papaver somniferum, are
powerful pain relievers and narcotics. The narcotic activity of P. somniferum
was noted on Sumerian tablets in 3500
B.C. Making it one of the oldest drugs
known. Opium is the dried latex of the seed head of p.somniferum and has been
used as an analgesic (eliminates or
relieves pain) and narcotic (induces sleep or drowsiness) in preparation
such as laudanum and paregoric. Morphine is the principal alkaloid and was
first isolated between 1803 and 1806. it was widely used for pain relied
beginning in the 1830’s but was also recognized as being addictive. In an
attempt to make morphine less addictive, Bayer chemist acetylated the hydroxyl
groups to produce diacetylmorphine. This was marketed as a non- addictive pain
reliever under the trade name heroin for about two years in the early 1900’s,
until it was recognized to be more addictive than morphine have been developed
and found use as opiate antagonist or as animal tranquilizers3.
one of the most potent antileukemic drugs in use today, was isolated in a
search for diabetes treatment from vinca rosea (now Catharanthus roseus) in the
1950’s along with vinblastine, a homologue in which the N- methyl group is
oxidized to an aldehyde moiety. This is such a complex structure that is still
isolated from the plant (the Madagascan periwinkle) today rather than prepared
(leurocristine, VCR) is most effective in treating childhood leukemia’s and non
– Hodgkin’s lymphomas, while vinvlasbtine (vincaleukoblastine, VLB) is used to
treat Hodgkin’s disease4.
layer Chromatography (TLC) techniques are frequently used for evaluating
medicinal plant materials and their preparations (world health organisation
1998). The ascending technique was used.
are found in every habitat in which vascular plants grow. They are not widely
distributed in the vegetable kingdom. They are derived mainly from the
angiosperms, the seed bearing or flowering plants. They occur mainly in the
dicotyledons (two seed leaves). They are rarely found in non-seed bearing
plants. Generally, they occur in plant tissues at points of intense cell
activity (leaves, roots, barks and seeds) and they are generally found in
living cells rather than in dead tissues.
may be found in solution in cell sap, and especially in the parenchymatous
tissues in the other bark and may be stored in the solid state usually in the
form of salts. Alkaloids from plants of closely related family are similar in
structure and are not localized, but appear to be characteristics of the
not all organs of any one species must have alkaloids. For example, the seed of
tobacco does not contain alkaloids. The periods of maximum accumulation of alkaloids appear only in early flowering
stage. Some alkaloids are virtually absent in a young plant, but increase to
insoluble amounts as the plant approaches maturity. As a rule alkaloids are not
found free in plants, but are combined with some acids in form of salts. The
acids most encountered are malic, citric, tannic, succinic, oxalic, sulphric,
phosphoric and hydrochloric acid.
occur in many different species in numerous genera and families of vascular
plants as well as in certain species of fungi. It has been estimated that some
fifteen percent or more of all vascular plants contain alkaloids. A number of
amines produced by animals possess physical and chemical properties rather
similar to those of alkaloids. By traditions and conventions, these animals
amines are generally not considered as alkaloids. The occurrence of alkaloids
in different plant organs and tissues and their relationship to aspects of the
physiology of the plants are interesting part of alkaloids.
are usually classified by their common molecular heat, based on the metabolic
pathway used to construct the molecule. When not much was known about the
biosynthesis of alkaloids, they were grouped under the names of known
compounds, even some non – nitrogenous ones (since those molecular structures
appear in the finished product, the opium alkaloids are sometimes called
phenanthrenes, for example) or by the plant or animal they were isolated from.
When more is learnt about a certain alkaloid, the grouping is changed to
reflect the new knowledge, usually taking the name of a biologically important
amine that stands out in the synthetic process.
group includes piperine, conine, trigonelline, arecaidine, guvacine,
pilocarpine, cytosine, nicotine, sparteine, pelletierine.
group is made up of hygrine, cuscohygrine, nicotine.
group: atropine, cocaine, ecgonine, scopolamine, catuabine.
group: quinine, guanidine, dihydroquinine,
strychinine, brucine, veratine, cevadine.
group: the opium alkaloids (morphine, codeine, thebaine, isopapa – dimethoxy –
aniline, papaverine, narcotine, sanguinarrine, narceine, hydrstine berberine),
group: mescaline, ephedrine, dopamine, amphetamine.
group: Tryptamines: DMT, N – Methyltryptamine psilocybin, and serotonin.
Ergolines, the ergot alkaloids. Ergine, ergitamine, lysergic acid etc).
– carbolines, haemine, harmaline, yolimbine, reserpine.
group: Xanthines, Caffeine, the theobromine, theophylline.
group: Aconite alkaloids, aconitine, steroids, solanine, samandaris
(quaternary) ammonium compound
muscarine, choline, neurine. Vinca alkaloids: vinblastine, vincristine,
they are antineoplastic and bind free tublin dimmers thereby distrupting
balance between microdubule polymerization and delpolmerization resulting in
arrest of cells in metaphase.
are colourless, crystalline, non – violatile solids that are insoluble in water
but soluble in organic solvents such as ether, chloroform e.t.c. They have the
molecular weights ranging from 100 to 900.
alkaloids contain oxygen atoms while the others do not.
without oxygen atoms in the structure are usually liquid at ordinary
temperature (e.g) nicotine, sparteine and coniine)
with oxygen atoms are crystalline (e.g berberine yellow). Most are optically
active (usually leavorotatory) but not those from the group.
of Nitrogen in their molecule
contain one or more nitrogen atoms in their molecules. A large number of
alkaloids contain at least one nitrogen atoms in a heterocyclic ring. But in a
number of alkaloidal amines (e.g. ephedrine, mescaline, colchineds) which are
generally considered as alkaloids, the nitrogen atom in the molecule is not in
Amino acid as a Biosynthetic materials;
alpha amino acids have been experimentally shown to serve as precursor in the
nitrogen containing portion of the alkaloid molecules but in some cases also
with respect to the non-nitrogenous portion as well. Among the amino acids
which have been either experimentally established or postulated on the basis of
theoretical chemical considered as common ones are;
tyrosine, lysine, omthine, histidine, tryptophan and anthracilic acid. However, some alkaloids are, in their
biogenesis, more directly derived from isoprene or other precursor compounds of
1.8 Alkalinity of Alkaloids
are basic (alkaline) in reaction, due to the presence of nitrogen atom in their
molecule.The term alkaloids mean alkali like. Therefore they form salts with
various acids. Most of the alkaloid bases are crystalline solids, a few are
liquid (eg nicotine, pilocarpine). The alkaloid salts are crystalline and the
microscopic examination of their crystalline structure serves as an aid to
their identification.The alkaloid salts in solution release the free alkaloid
bases when the solution is made alkaline, most commonly with ammonia, sodium
carbonate or calcium hydroxide. All alkaloids do not have the same degree of
alkalinity. Apart from the influence exerted on the electronic disposition of
the nitrogen atom in the molecule by side chains and various substitution, one
important factor contributing to the different degree of alkalinity among
alkaloids is whether a given alkaloid contains primary, secondary, tertiary or
quaternary nitrogen atom or atoms. Such differences in the degree of alkalinity
arise from the various structural characters and one reflected in the different
alkaline values for the different alkaloids. The weaker bases (those with low
alkaline value) would require a more acidic medium to form salts with the acid
than would the strongly basic alkaloids, having higher alkaline value.
1.9 Solubility of Alkaloids
alkaloid bases are practically water – insoluble. They are fairly soluble in
a number of organic solvents such as
Chloroform, Ether and lower alcohols. There are of course, exceptions. For
instance, Morphine and Colchicines are practically insoluble in ether. Also
many alkaloids which contain phenolic hydroxyl group in their molecules are
soluble in aqueous solutions of caustic alkali.
the other hand, the alkaloid salts are generally soluble in water and in
alcohol, and mostly nearly insoluble in the immiscible organic solvents.
alkaloid bases are rather soluble in water, but there are exceptions. Some
examples of water – soluble alkaloids are:
Colchicines, Ergonovine and the Clavinet – type of ergot alkaloid. It should be
noted however that these water – soluble
alkaloids are still relatively more soluble in a number of organic solvents
such as chloroform or ether, than they are in water, and their salts are nearly
insoluble in the immiscible organic solvents such as chloroform or ether, than
they are in water, and their salts are nearly insoluble in the immiscible
alkaloids in small quantities (10 – 100:g) in
soluble may form precipitation or turbidity with certain reagents. Most
alkaloids are also precipitated by tannins. With special techniques some
alkaloids smaller in quantities than :g may
be detected in this way, on this basis. These alkaloid precipitating reagents
are sometime used in testing the presence or absence of alkaloids in crude
extracts of plant materials, and in testing whether a particular step in an
extraction procedure has exhausted the alkaloidal contents. A negative response
can be taken to mean absence of alkaloids, but a positive test may or may not
be due to the presence of alkaloids in the solution or extract being tested, as some non-alkaloid substances
may also give such a positive response to these reagents.
nut is a genus of about 125 species of trees native to the tropical rainforest
of Africa classified in the family malvaceae, subfamily sterculioideae (or
treated in the separate family sterculiaceae) It is related to south American
genus Theobroma (Cocao). They are evergreen trees growing to 20m tall, with
glossy ovoid leaves up to 30cm long5.
kola nut has a bitter flavour and caffeine content, and is chewed in many
African cultures, individually or in a group setting. It is often used
ceremonically, presented to tribal chiefs or presented to guests. Chewing kola
nut can ease hunger pangs. Frequent chewing of the kola nut can also lead to
stained teeth. Among the urban youths of West Africa, Kola nut is becoming less
popular5. Kola was originally used to make cola soft drinks, though
today most of these mass – produced beverages use artificial flavourings. Some
exceptions are barr’s Red Kola, Harboe original Taste Cola, foxon Park Kola,
Blue sky Organic Cola, Whole food market 365 Cola, sprecher’s puma kola and
cricket cola, the latter being made from kola nuts and green tea. In 2007,
united kingdom supermarket, Tesco introduced an American premium cola that uses
kola nuts, species and vanilla. The merging energy drink mix, blow, contains
50mg of kola nut extract per vial (in addition to 240mg of caffeine per
of Africa, some species are cultivated for their nuts. Examples in Indonesia,
Brazil, Jamaica and elsewhere in the humid tropics. Kola nuts are often used to
treat whopping cough and asthma. The caffeine present acts as a bronchodilator,
expanding the bronchiole air passages.
Effects Of Kola Nuts:
nuts are used mainly for their stimulant and euphoria qualities. They have
effects similar to other xanthenes containing herbs like cocoa, tea coffee,
quarana and Yerba mate. However, the effects an distinctively different,
producing a stronger state of euphoria and well being. They have stimulant
effects on the central nervous system and heart. Animal experiments indicate
that kola nuts have analeptic and lipolytic (fat - burning) properties, and
stimulate the secretion of gastric juices. Human studies show kola nuts have
positive chronotropic and weak diuretic effects. In human, it enhances
alertness and physical energy, elevates mood, increases tactile sensitivity,
suppresses the appetite and is used in Africa as an aphrodisiac. Autonomic
changes include. Increased body temperature, increase blood pressure and
increased respiratory rate. Effects may last up to 6 hours after ingestion
composition of Kola Nuts
(2-3.5%), Theobromine (1.0-2.5%) Thophylline, catechine, Epicatechine, D –
Catechine, phenolics phlobaphens, kola red, Betaine, protein, starch, fat,
thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Ascorbic acids, Betaine, sugar, Gum, cellulose,
water calcium, potassium, Iron, Beta – carotene and tannic acid6.
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