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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00002547

No of Pages: 65

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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Background to the Study

Statement of the Problem

Purpose of the Study

Research Questions

Research Hypothesis

Significant of the Study

Scope of the Study




The Functions of Language

English Language in Nigeria

The Roles of English Language in Nigeria

Problem based Learning Method/Model

Representation of the Problem

Problem Solving Cycle

Some Problem-Solving Strategies

A General Strategy for Problem Solving

Appraisal of the Literature Reviewed



Population of the Study

Sample and Sampling Techniques

Research Instrument (s)

Validity and Reliability of the Study

Procedure for Data Collection

Methods of Data Analysis






Discussion of the Findings



Suggestions for Further Studies









Background to the Study

Problem solving permeates every comer of human activity and is a common denominator of widely disparate fields such as the sciences; law; education; business; sports; medicine, industry; literature ; and as if there weren’t enough problem solving activity in our professional and vocational lives, many form of recreation. Human, apes, and many other mammals are curious types who, for reason seemingly related to survive, seek stimulation and resolve conflict through a lifetime of creative, intelligent problem solving. A problem is a situation which is experienced by an agent as different from the situation which the agent ideally would like to be in. A problem is solved by a sequence of actions that reduce the different between the initial situation and the goal (F. Heylighen, 1998).

Problem solving is “thinking that is directed toward the solving of a specific problem that involves both the formation of responses and the selection among possible responses.” We encounter an untold number of problems in our daily lives that cause us to form response strategies, to select potential responses, and to test responses in solving a problem.

This could be useful if you are seeking the help of another person in dealing with problem. The spoken words and gestures are an oral and body language model of the problem. You might represent a problem using pencil and paper. You could do this to communicate with another person or with yourself. Writing and drawing are power fluids to memory. You probably keep an address book or address list of the names, addresses, and the phone numbers of your friends. Perhaps it contains additional information such as email addresses, birthday, names of your friends’ children and so on. You have learned that an address book is more reliable than your memory. As a conclusion there are still other ways and many ways to represent problems. The work of the Gestalt psychologists focused on the nature of a task and its influence on a person’s ability to solve it. Recent scholars have attacked the question of problem solving from several different perspectives, including what modern cognitive psychologists call the process of representation, or how a problem is depicted in the mind. The way information is represented in solving a problem seems to follow a well ordered pattern. The stereotypical sequence of problem solving, as suggested by Hayes (1998) are involved cognitive action like Identifying the problem, representation of the problem, planning the solution, execute the plan, evaluate the plan and evaluate the solution. Other representations, such as through writing and mathematics, are useful because they are a supplement to your brain.

Written representations of problems facilitate sharing with yourself and others over time and distance. However, a written model is not as easily changed as a mental model. Your written word has a permanency that is desirable in some situations, but is a difficulty in others. You cannot merely “think” a change Erasing is messy. And, if you happen to be writing with a ballpoint pen, erasing is nearly impossible. When a problem is represented with a computer, we call this a computer model or a computer representation of the problem. For some problems, a computer model has some of the same characteristics as mental mode]. Some computers are easy to change and allow easy exploration of alternatives. For example, consider a document that is represented as a word processor file. It may be easier to revise this document than appear and pencils version of the document. A computer can assist in spell checking and can be used to produce a nicely formatted final product. In the representation of problems, computers are useful in some cases and not at all useful in others. For example, a computer can easily present data in a variety of graphical formats, such as line graph, bar graph, or in the form of graphs of two and three dimensional mathematical functions. But a computer may not be a good substitute for the doodling and similar types of graphical memory mapping activities that many people use when attacking problems. Suppose that one’s mental representation of a problem is in terms of analogy and metaphor. Research that delved into the inner workings of the minds of successful researchers and inventors suggests this is common and perhaps necessary. A computer may be of little use in manipulating such a mental representation.




Statement of the Problem

There are many different ways to represent a problem. A problem can be represented mentally (in your own mind), orally, in writing, on a computer, and so on. Each type of representation has certain advantages and disadvantages. From a personal or ownership point of view, you first become aware of a problem situation in your mind and body. You sense or feel that something is not the way you want it to be. You form a mental representation, a mental model, of the problem. This mental model may include images, sounds or feelings. You can carry on a conversation with yourself- inside your head-about the problem. Mental representations of problems are essential. You create and use them whenever you work on a problem. But, problems can be represented in other ways; for example, you might represent a problem with spoken words and gestures. It is against this backdrop that the researcher wish to investigate the effects of problem-solving method in academic performance in English language in primary schools in Oke Ero LGA of Kwara State.  


Purpose of the Study

          The general purpose of the study is to determine the effects of problem-solving method in academic performance in English language, while (in primary schools in Oke-Ero LGA, Kwara State). Specifically, the study sought to find out;

1.                 The extent to which gender influences the academic performance and those taught with conventional method.

2.                 The interaction effect of treatment and gender on pupils post test measurement in English language performance.

Research Questions

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

1.                 What is the difference in the achievement mean scores of pupils in experimental and control groups before treatment?

2.                 What is the difference in mean academic performance of the students taught English Language with Problem-Solving teaching strategy and conventional method?

3.                 What is the difference in the mean academic performance of male and female pupils taught English Language with Problems-Solving teaching strategy?

Research Hypothesis

          The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

1.                 There is no significant difference in the achievement mean scores of students in experimental and control groups before treatment.

2.                 There is no significant difference in mean academic performance of the students taught English language with problem-solving teaching method and conventional method.

3.                 There is no significant difference in the mean academic performance of male and female students taught English language with problem-solving teaching method. 

Significant of the Study

          Evidence of poor performance in English language is the motive behind the present study, which seeks to examine the effect of problem-solving method on the English language achievement of poor achieving pupils in primary schools. A solid background in English language at the primary school level is very important. Findings of the study would be of immense benefit to primary school teachers, as they will be sensitized to a new method for teaching (the English language). In summary, both the study and its results are of importance to the school and all people concerned with the education of children at primary and secondary school levels.

Scope of the Study

          Due to time and financial constraint, the study is limited to only the primary schools in Oke-Ero Local Government Area of Kwara State.

Operational Definition of Terms

Effect: According to Oxford learner’s dictionary. “Effect” is a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

Problem: An ongoing problem, problems with the staff mystery an event or situation that is difficult to fully understand or explain, or a person about whom little is known; the key to understanding the mysteries of the universe.

Problem-solving: Is a process which focuses on knowing the issues, considering all possible factors that led to finding a solution. Is the analysis and solution of tasks and situations that are somewhat complex or ambiguous and that pose difficulties, inconsistencies obstacles of some kind.

Method: Way of doing something, a way of doing or carrying something out especially according to a plan.

Performance: Is the act of rating how well somebody does something or how something works.

Kwara State: State is an organized community controlled by one government. Therefore, Kwara State is a place where people of different ethnic group and languages lives and are governed by a government which comprises of many Local Governments Area. One of the 36 States in Nigeria located in the North Central.   

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