The issue of study-duration extension in education is
like a hole in a tooth; boldly challenging the perfection of education and
constantly questioning its efficiency. This study explores this distasteful
phenomenon, highlighting its causative factors, antecedence and implications.
It is delimited to the Department of
Human Kinetics and Health Education, Faculty of Education, University of Lagos.
The sample population were 40 extra-year students from the above-mentioned
Department. The Chi-square statistical tool was employed in data analysis. The
following recommendations were made: Students who represent the University in
sporting competitions, their movements
should be made known to the lecturers and other teaching personnel in
the institution. Arrangements should also be made to set up make-up test,
assignments and examinations for them, which they may miss while representing
the institution. Cohort advisers need to be motivated and encouraged to live up
to their expectations. Checks and balances should be made on their activities
by the appropriate personnel, while considering feedbacks from advisees. There
is need to continually guide students against the effects of negative peer
pressure, so that it may not affect their academic goals and achievements.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Purpose of the Study 5
1.4 Research questions 5
1.5 Research hypotheses 5
1.6 Significance of the study 6
1.7 Delimitation of the study 6
Definition of Terms 7
2.1 Physiology of balance 8
2.2 Biomechanics of balance 11
2.3 Balance assessment 16
2.4 Balance training studies in athletes 22
2.5 Core stability training studies in
2.6 Balance training in athletes with injuries 27
2.6 Summary 29
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Method 31
Population of the Study 31
Sample and Sampling Technique 32
Research Instrument 32
Validity of Research Instruments 32
of Research Instrument 32
for Data Collection 32
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 33
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS ANALYSIS
4.1 Subjects 34
4.2 Balance testing procedure 36
4.3 Training Program 39
4.4 Discussion of findings 45
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 48
5.2 Conclusion 49
5.3 Recommendation 50
1.1 Background to the
Balance, the ability to maintain a stable position
over a base of support is an important component of a human’s single leg stance
ability (Matsuda, Demura & Uchiyama, 2008; Paterno, Myer, Ford &
Hewett 2004). Typically, balance forms the basis for motor skills, from
simple to more challenging, in sports (Anderson & Behm, 2005; Davlin,
2004). Balance, dynamic in nature, requires single limb control in order to
complete functional tasks during sports, such as kicking, jumping, landing,
tackling, running and evading. Dynamic balance requires a combination of both
ankle and knee proprioception and core stability in order to maintain an
Balance incorporates the visual, vestibular and
somato-sensory input from afferent and efferent control strategies (Matsuda,
Demura & Uchiyama, 2008; Simoneau, Ulbrecht, Derr & Cavanagh,
Proprioception is a specialized sensory modality that
includes the sensation of joint and muscle movement and known as kinesthesia and joint
position sense (Lephart, Pincivero, Giraldo & Fu, 2007). Core stability
is the body’s ability to maintain dynamic equilibrium of the trunk as a result
of internal or external disturbance (Zanzulak, Cholewicki & Reeves, 2008).
Research supports the proposition that, physiologically, muscle and
joints have proprioceptive qualities, but there has been limited applied
research on the practical applications of balance training for elite
team sport athletes (Lephart, Pincivero,
& Giraldo 2007).
While balance studies have assessed the impact of
balance training in reducing injury reoccurrence, there is less research
investigating whether balance training including wobble board and core
stability exercises, improves balance in the able bodied person. While balance
studies have included balance training typically using wobble boards, core
stability exercises are also an important component of developing dynamic
balance. The trunk or ‘core’ provides an anatomical stable base for movement of
distal segments (Kibler, Press &
Studies of dynamic balance have typically assessed
balance through the intervention of balance training over 4-10 weeks (Guillou,
Dupui & Golomer, 2007; Hertel, Olmstead-Kramer & Challis, 2006;
Jonsson, Seiger & Hirschfield 2004; Tropp & Askling, 1988;
Tropp, Romeu & Wojecic, 1984;
Verhagen, Van der Beek, Twisk & Bouter, 2005).
athletes, the realization of the benefit of stability training is small at
first. They are questioning why they have to do it at all. But if they stick
with it, they notice that doing an everyday activity starts to become a little
Press & Sciascia, 2006). That sack of groceries can be grabbed with
one hand. Climbing the stairs takes less effort. Sports skills become a little
crisper and smoother. The connection is not there yet but it starts to make
them wonder what is going on (Louriero, 2009).
An example of a stability training
tool is the Swiss ball. Maintaining proper alignment on the ball stimulates the
body's natural motor reflexes and encourages the body to react as a whole,
integrated unit. This type of movement corresponds to how you move about in a
normal day. Training on the ball challenges the whole body to participate in
order to maintain correct posture and balance, and to perform dynamic exercise
movement (Gaerlan, Landreau & Ferraro, 2012). When using the ball
correctly, the body is required to utilize various muscles for stabilization.
These muscles may not have been previously challenged using traditional
exercise equipment. Because the ball is versatile and dynamic the training
outcome will deliver maximal results.
The simplicity of the stability ball
translates into balance.( Azri, Calisaya, Candela & Richards, 2009) Because
the ball demands balance, you will work muscles you never knew you had or
challenge them in a different way. The trial of maintaining perfect posture, on
a round and mobile surface can be invigorating, fun and amazingly effective in
building functional strength, and challenging your abdominal and back muscles (
Azri, Calisaya, Candela & Richards, 2009)
The versatile nature of stability
training is designed to improve balance, body awareness, coordination and
posture. There are different positions and exercises where this can be used so
it will never be boring, revealed Azri, Calisaya, Candela & Richards
(2009). Azri, Calisaya, Candela & Richards (2009) also revealed that
stability training is considered to be the most effective exercise tool to
improve and develop pelvic, shoulder and spine stability because the person has
no other support to rely own except his or her own body. If you feel like
falling off, your body will automatically alert you of the problem and then
make the necessary corrections thus reinforcing positive movement patterns (
Azri, Calisaya, Candela & Richards, 2009).
Besides being a tremendous benefit to
your body, it adds another layer of variety to your current strength training
protocol. By replacing your bench with the ball you can add a whole new level
of coordination and balance to your seated and lying exercises; not to mention
the great core muscle strength and endurance you develop from stabilizing your
body during all of your sets and repetitions (Drevet, 2009).
The current research is being undertaken as there
seems to be little or no research investigating the effect of stability
training exercises on the dynamic balance of children in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of
researcher has noticed that the quality of balance in individuals is a relative
quality, ranging from person to person. The degree of dynamic balance depends
on many factors, some of which are injuries, congenital defects and poor
postures. Children are vulnerable to these factors, which, coupled with
inexperience and a relative lack of information, can compromise their balance.
The problem of this study is to determine how stability training can help to
offset the effect of the predisposing factors and influence children’s balance.
1.3 Purpose of the
The purpose of this study is to determine the
effect of stability training programme on the dynamic balance of Akoka Primary
1.4 Research questions
following research questions will be answered during the course of this study
stability training affect the co-ordination of primary school pupils?
stability training affect the agility of primary school pupils?
stability training affect the flexibility of primary school pupils?
stability training affect the reaction
time of primary school pupils?
1.5 Research hypotheses
following hypotheses will be tested in this study
training will not significantly affect the co-ordination of primary school
training will not significantly affect the agility of primary school pupils.
training will not significantly affect the flexibility of primary school
training will not significantly affect the reaction time of primary school
1.6 Significance of the study
findings of this study will be of importance to coaches, physical education
teachers and trainers because it will generate valuable information concerning
the stability of their trainees. It will also reveal to them the importance of
stability training and how stability relates to other factors of fitness.
1.7 Delimitation of the study
study is delimited to the effect of stability training exercises on the dynamic
balance of primary school pupils in Yaba Local Government Area of Lagos state
using the experimental research design.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Stability training exercises: A series of
activities aimed at improving the sense of physical stability of
balance: The ability of a child to maintain a center of gravity over a
constantly changing base of support.
: The process by which the body can vary muscle contraction in immediate
response to incoming information regarding external forces, by utilizing
stretch receptors in the muscles to keep track of the joint position in the