This study was conducted
to identify the Effects of Demonstration and Guided Discovery methods on the
student’s academic performance in Biology.
consisted of 120 SSIII Biology students selected from four senior secondary
schools in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State based on random
sampling techniques. A quasi experimental research design was used.
used to collect data was an achievement test of 30 items on the human digestive
system. All the sample students were pre-and post-tested using the achievement
was tested at 0.05 level of significance. Data collected were analyzed using
the student’s t-test statistics. The result indicated that there was a
significant difference in the academic performance of students who were taught
with demonstration method and those who taught with guided discovery methods in
Biology with students exposed to demonstration method achieving better than
those exposed to guided discovery.
of content vi
1.0 Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 3
1.2 Purpose of the Study 6
1.3 Statement of Problem 6
1.4 Research Questions 7
1.5 Research Hypotheses 7
1.6 Significance of the Study 7
1.7 Scope of the Study 8
1.8 Limitations of Study 8
1.9 Definition of terms 8
Teaching methods 9
Demonstration method 12
Guided discovery method 15
Students’ attitude towards biology 19
2.5 Factors affecting student’s attitude
and performance in biology 21
influence of teachers’ effectiveness to students
performance to biology 25
3.1 Research Design 34
3.2 Population of the study 31
3.3 Sample and Sampling Techniques 31
3.4 Research Instrument 32
3.5 Validity and Reliability of
3.6 Administration of the instrument 33
3.7 Method of data Analysis 33
4.1 Data Analysis 35
4.2 Discussions of Results 45
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary 46
5.2 Conclusion 47
5.3 Recommendations 48
Appendix I 58
Appendix II 66
Appendix III 71
has been observed that the educational system in Nigeria has been experiencing
some setback due to our political instability which is one of the major problems
faced by the sector. It can be said that little attention has been given to
this sector as a result of the non-chalant attitude of our political leaders.
Education, the underlining factor of the social life that help people create meaning
out of the environment as well as been able to influence the environment to
their own benefit.
is greatly dependent on science and technology, this is because the future hope
for a better scientifically and technologically developed countries which lies
in science education. A sound knowledge of science education is very important
for the management of our natural resources, provision of adequate food and
healthy environment. For instance, Biological sciences is essential to all
forms of life including plants and animals and other living and non-living
components. It also plays important role towards achieving self–reliance in the
life of individual (Dutta, 1996; Umeh, 1999).
develop nation is as a result of science and technology been embraced in their
school curriculum. In the teaching of science subjects certain methods is being
recommended as the appropriate method to be used. These methods stipulated in
the science curriculum is to enable the effective teaching and learning of
science subjects. Some of the cardinal objectives of the biology curriculum for
senior secondary school syllabus are to prepare pupils to acquire meaningful
and relevant knowledge in biology, also to acquire reasonable and functional
scientific attitudes. In accordance with the objectives, the contents and
contexts of the syllabus also place emphasis on guided-discovery, techniques
and skills coupled with conceptual thinking.
teachers use methods apart from the methods stipulated in the curriculum by the
Nigeria Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) and it has
contributed to the low performance of student in biology. The repeated records
of failures in biology tend to pose some attitude in students towards the
teaching of biology by the teacher in the explanation of biological concept.
attitudes of the teachers toward the teaching of biology as a science subject
has failed to achieve the stated objectives of biology as stated in the
1.1 Background Of The Study
the perspective of promoting standard based science education, the teaching
method employed plays important role in learning important ideas and skills if
standard based education is to become a reality in the nation classroom (Tyson,
are the tools of the teacher for reaching the set goals and objectives. The
effective teacher has multiplicity of methods at his disposal and must be
prepared to select the ones which will be most effective for leading the
learner to desired behaviour. Educational methods is a process of cognitive,
affective and psychomotive development whose aim is to mould the learner
towards a total contribution to the development of the learner and the
community (Durosaro, 2002). In achieving this by the teacher, there is the need
to improve on the instructional methods in teaching biology.
this study is set out to investigate if appropriate teaching method used in
teaching biology could yield a better performance. Such teaching methods are
demonstration methods and guided-discovery.
method is always accomplished by telling or explaining a concept by the
handling or manipulating of real things, equipment or materials or showing
pictures. Demonstrations are useful because they provide concrete reference for
objects or events. Students relate terms and concepts to those events which
they have observed. If this method is used to carryout a study on students’
performance in biology, it will be observed that student will be able to
identify some difficulties they faced in learning biology when they were given
problem to solve. Demonstration method is an effective means of supplementing
and clarifying the content being taught.
method likewise is an instructional strategy in which the learner tends to
learn more or have better understanding of biological concepts because they are
guided to discover things by themselves. Discovery learning, when encouraged in
the science class also aids problem solving because learning by discovery
starts with problem solving (Akanbi and Opasina 2000). Discovery also causes
creativity in the student which is one of the major objective of science
two methods have a positive effect on the students’ level of academic
performance but certain factors have been attributed to the poor achievement or
performance of students in biology. These include the level of the teacher’s
knowledge in biology, in the principles and methods of teaching, inability of
the teacher to understand his/her student during teaching process or inadequate
infrastructure/ teaching aids.
is tendency that each of these two methods will create an effect on the
academic performance of student in biology. This project work tends to identify
the effect created on the academic performance of students in biology using demonstration
method and guided-discovery method.
1.2 Purpose Of The Study
study aim to;
Determine the effect of using
Demonstration method in teaching biology.
Determine the effect of using Guided –
Discovery method in teaching biology.
Find out students’ level of
understanding biological concepts.
Investigate students’ performance in
biology using each of the methods.
1.3 Statement Of
teachers lack adoption of educational methods in teaching biology, poor
performance of students in biology will be inevitable, if a teacher does not
have content pedagogical knowledge of biology, it tends to contribute to the
poor academic performances of students in biology. Also inadequate
infrastructure or teaching aid may lead to ineffective teaching and learning.
The question is that, does the method used in teaching of biology affect
student’s performance? This is a problem which this study intend to solve.
1.4 Research Question
guide this study, the following research questions are stated.
What is the academic performance of
students taught with Demonstration Method and Guided-Discovery method?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
hypothesis is formulated to guide the study:
Ho: There will be no significance
difference between the academic performance of students who are taught with
Demonstration Method and those who are taught with Guided – Discovery
1.6 Significance of Study
research work will provide the effects of demonstration and guided-discovery
method of teaching in biology and its contribution to the academic performance
of the students. Findings will highlight the strengths of implementing these
methods thereby informing teachers of those factors to reckon with in teaching
1.7 Scope Of The Study
study will cover schools in Alimosho Local Government due to proximity of the area to the university and my residence.
1.8 Limitation Of Study
study is restricted to some selected schools within the Local Government Area
of study due to time, distance, and transportation factors.
1.9 Definition Of Term
instruction that shows or explains how something works or is done using
illustration, picture, chart etc.
Guided discovery Method
– is a method whereby the teacher guides the students to discover things on
their own e.g through questioning.
– are the strategies the teacher uses to reach the set goals and objectives of
an instructional process.
– are the set rules that guide the teaching profession.
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