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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00005226

No of Pages: 44

No of Chapters: 5

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The single wheel driven boom sprayer was developed, fabricated and evaluated for its performance at the department of Agricultural and Bio-environmental engineering workshop, Kwara state polytechnic, Ilorin. The spraying performance was carried out at spraying height of 0.5m, 0.6m and 0.7m respectively. The theoretical  field capacity CT, the effective field capacity CE and  Field efficiency (ŋ) at spraying height of 0.5m  are 0.285ha/hr , 0.165ha/hr and 58%, while at spraying height  0.6m, are 0.273ha/hr, 0.158ha/hr and 57.81% and  at spraying height 0.7m are 0.269ha/hr, 0.155ha/hr and  58.055%  respectively.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               






                        Title page                                                                                      i

                        Certification                                                                                  ii

                        Dedication                                                                                    iii

                        Acknowledgements                                                                      iv                                                   Abstract                                                                                        v

                        Table of content                                                                            vi-viii

 List of Tables                                                                               ix

                        List of Plates                                                                                 x


1          Introduction                                                                                1

             1.2      Statement of the problem                                                             2                           

             1.3      Objective of the project                                                                2 

             1.4      Justification of the project                                                            3


            2          Literature review                                                                         4                           2.1             Spraying operation                                                                         4                           2.1.1    Spray materials                                                                             5                           2.1.2    Classification of sprayers                                                                   6                           2.2       Types of sprayer                                                                             9                           2.3       Sprayer differences                                                                        10                         2.3.1    Types of hydraulic sprayers                                                           10                         2.3.2    Types of low volume sprayers                                          12                          2.4            Calibration and operation                                                             13                          2.5       Spraying technique                                                                           14                          2.6       Factors affecting spraying                                                                  15                          2.7       Spraying machinery                                                                      16                          

2.8       Types of pumps for spraying                                                        20



            3.0       Materials and methods                                                               24                          3.1            Factors to be considered in the selection                                      24                                                  of materials

            3.2       Design Considerations                                                                  24                          3.3             Design and development of various                                             26


            3.3.1    Knapsack sprayer                                                                          26

            3.3.2    The frame                                                                                      26                          3.3.3            Driving wheel                                                                               27                          3.3.4    Crank mechanism                                                                        28                          3.3.5    The boom                                                                                      29

            3.4       Specification of the single wheel driven boom sprayer                30 

            3.5       Description of the single wheel driven boom sprayer       31



            4.0       Performance Evaluation                                                            32                          4.1            Experimental procedure                                                                32                          4.2       Results                                                                                           32                                                  4.2       Results and Discussions                                                           37



            5.0       Conclusion and recommendation                                               38                         

5.1            Conclusion                                                                                     38                         

5.2            Recommendation                                                                           38

                        References                                                                                     39






 TABLE                                             TITLE                                                            PAGE

  4.2.1              Spraying parameters at spraying height 0.5m                                     32

  4.2.2              Spraying parameters at spraying height 0.6m                                     33                   

  4.2.3              Spraying parameters at spraying height 0.7m                                     34

  4.2.4              Average spraying data at spray height 0.5,0.6                                    35       

                        and 0.7                                                                                                           






    PLATES                TITLE                                                                                PAGE

     2.1                          Hydraulic energy sprayers                                                      6

     2.2                          Gasoline energy sprayers                                                        7                     

     2.3                          Centrifugal energy sprayers                                                    7

     2.4                          Roller pump                                                                            20

     2.5                          Diaphragm pump                                                                    21       

     2.6                          Piston pump                                                                            22                   

     2.7                          Turbine pump                                                                          23

     3.1                          Knapsack sprayer                                                                    26

     3.2                          The Frame                                                                               27

     3.3                          The wheel                                                                                27

     3.4                          Maximum and minimum displacement of piston pump          29       



1.0              Introduction

Crop yield is reduced by mainly due to attack of pest, diseases and weeds. Chemical control is the popular method adopted for controlling most insects, weed and diseases.  The chemical are applied either by spraying or dusting.  Spraying is one of the most effective and efficient techniques for applying small volume of spray liquid to protect crops.  In conventional methods, manually operated low and high volume hydraulic sprayer and power operated hydraulic sprayer with long boom, long lances or spray gun are used to carry fluid at different targets.  In this method, the time and labor required is more. It is difficult to spray the pesticide uniformly and effectively throughout the crop by conventional method of spraying.  Though this method gives good pest control, it consumes large volume of liquid per plant, great amount of labour and time are required.  Also drip losses are more owing to concern towards protecting environment from pollution by excessive use of pesticide and to economies the spraying method, suitable alternative should be identified.

In Nigeria, diverse farm mechanization scenario as in country due to varied size of the farm holdings and socio economic disparities.  Most farmers in Nigeria are small and marginal land holder.  The spraying operation is done by knapsack sprayer which consumes more time and energy.

Tractor operated sprayers are difficult for adaptation by the farmer due to existing cropping patterns available for field size, field condition during the rainy season.  To overcome these problem requirements for better adapting in the view of a single wheel driven boom sprayer is a better option due to its medium cost and small size implying maneuverability in the small land holding.

Single wheel driven boom sprayers can fulfill the mechanization gap to do spraying operation at the faster rate.  This shows there is an urgent need to introduce mechanical sprayer in Nigeria farm.  The single wheel driven boom sprayer should be small for easy maneuverability and less expensive for farmers as best source of spraying operation.

1.1      Statement of the problems                                                                                                                 The back mounted knapsack sprayer is associated with the following problems                         

i.      It consumes more time and labor during spraying operation                                                          

ii. The output is low    

 iii.    The uniformity and efficiency is inadequate      


1.2       Objectives of the Project

The main objective of the research is to design, develop and evaluate a boom for a Knapsack sprayer.  The specific objectives for the research are:

       I.                        To design and fabricate a single wheel driven boom sprayer.

    II.                        To evaluate the performance of a single wheel driven boom sprayer.

1.3       Justifications of the Project

The justications of the project are basically:

       I.                        To control the growth of weeds not comporting with crop planted

    II.                        To reduce human labor for controlling weed  in the field

 III.                        To improve the quality and quantity of the crop planted

 IV.                        To increase the income of the farmers.

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