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This study assessed the consumption pattern of soft drinks, confectionaries and anthropometric status of undergraduate in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. Four objectives guided this study. This was a cross- sectional study of undergraduate students of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. Data was collected using self, administered questionnaire. This questionnaire was distributed to three hundred and eighty four randomly selected undergraduate students in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike. Data collected was analysed using frequency, percentage and Pearson correlation analysis. The study found that the more of the respondents were female (52.3%) and majority of the respondents were within the age range of 20-22 (54.9%). Also the study revealed that majority of the students (59.1% and 61.7%) have poor consumption (excessive) of soft drinks and confectionaries, majority of the students have normal weights which implies that the students are healthy. in conclusion this study has contributed to existing literatures on consumption of soft drinks, confectionaries and anthropometric status of undergraduate. This study recommended that healthful dietary patterns should be promoted in universities to establish healthier lifestyle patterns in adulthood and perhaps future generations.


Title page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Table of contents             vii
List ot tables ix
Abstract              xi

1.1 Statement of Problem 4
1.2 Objectives of Study 5
1.2.1 General objective of the study 5
1.3 Significance of the Study 6

2.1 Malnutrition 7
2.2 Various forms of malnutrition 7
2.2.1 Undernutrition 7
2.2.2 Micronutrient-related malnutrition 9
2.2.3 Overweight and obesity 9
2.2.4 Diet-related non-communicable diseases 10
2.3 Origin and composition of  carbonated drinks 10
2.4 Origin and composition of soft drinks 12
2.5 Nutritional Composition of soft drinks 14
2.5.1 Energy Content 14
2.5.2 Sugar Content 14
2.6 Product Definition 15
2.7 Constituents of Beverages 16
2.8 Origin, types and uses of Confectionery 18
2.8.1 Bakers' Confectionery 19
2.8.2 Types Bakers' Confectionery 19
2.8.3 Sugar confectionery 20
2.9 Soft Drink and Confectionery Consumption Behavior of Undergraduates 23
2.9.1 Factors that influence consumption pattern 23
2.10 Effects of Increased Soft Drink and Confectionery Consumption 28
2.11 Anthropometric Measurement 38
2.11.1 Actual body weight 39
2.11.2 Height 40
2.11.3 Body Mass Index (BMI) In Adults 41
2.11.4 Waist circumference  42
2.11.5 Hip Circumference  43
2.11.6 Waist Hip Ratio 44

3.1Study Design 48
3.2 Area of Study 48
3.3 Population of the Study 49
3.4 Sampling and Sampling Techniques 49
3.4.1 Sample Size 49
3.4.2 Sampling Procedure 50
3.5 Preliminary Activity 51
3.5.1 Preliminary Visit 51
3.5.2 Training of Research Assistance 51
3.5.3 Informed Consent 51
3.6 Data Collection 52
3.6.1 Questionnaire Administration 52
3.6.2 Anthropometric Measurement 52
3.7 Data Analysis 53
3.8 Statistical Analysis 55

4.1 Socio Demographic Data of Undergraduate Students 56
4.2 Consumption Pattern of Soft Drinks of the respondents 59
4.3 Consumption Pattern of Confectionaries of the respondents 62
4.4 Lifestyle pattern of the respondents 66 
 4.5 Anthropometric Measurements of Confectionaries amongst Undergraduate Students 68
4.6 Relationship between Socio-Demographic Characteristics, Consumption Pattern and 
Anthropometric Status 70

5.1 Conclusion 73
5.2 Recommendation 74
Appendix I:Questionnaire


Table 4.1: Socio Demographic Data                58

Table 4.2a: Consumption Pattern of Soft Drinks amongst Undergraduate  Students               61
Table 4.3: Consumption Pattern of Confectionaries amongst Undergraduate  Students         65                                                                                          
Table 4.4: Lifestyle pattern of the respondent   67

Table 4.5a: Body Mass Index of Undergraduate Students               69

Table 4.5b: Weight Height Ratio (Whr) Of Undergraduate Students               69

Table 4.6.1: Correlation between Consumption Pattern and Anthropometric Status    71

Table 4.6.2: Correlation Between Consumption Pattern (Soft Drinks) And Anthropometric Status   72

Sweetened soft drinks (‘soft drinks’) and confectionaries are energy dense and offer little nutritional value (Vartanian et al., 2007). Consumption of these carbonated beverages and confectionaries are associated with increased energy intake as individuals do not adequately adjust their overall food intake to compensate for the extra energy provided by these drinks and confectioneries. Confectionaries and sugar-sweetened  beverages (SSB), which include soft drinks as well as energy drinks, fruit drinks and sports drinks, have been linked to weight gain and obesity in both adults and children (Malik et al., 2013; Te Morenga et al., 2012; World Health Organization, 2015). The acidity of soft drinks also likely contributes to dental erosion and caries in children (Moynihan et al., 2004; Shenkin et al., 2003).

The increased consumption of sweetened beverages (SBs) has raised much concern regarding their impact on health, as they contain empty calories, have a low satiety and facilitate an increased intake of foods that have very little or no nutritional value. Thus, the increased consumption of SSBs has been associated with the possible development of overweight and obesity (Te Morenga et al., 2013).

Soft drinks are among the popular products today (Lazim and Hasliza, 2011). Their consumption and popularity has been increasing steadily due to increased strong preference to palatable sweet taste, at a reasonably low price (Sartor et al., 2011). General food consumption pattern is influenced by consumers’ attitudes towards food and nutrition (Pieniak et al., 2010). One of the critical components in the shift of diets is the increased intake of soft drinks and sugary fruit drinks (Popkin and Nielsen, 2003). High consumption of sugar sweetened beverages, especially carbonated soft drinks and confectioneries by undergraduates increases the risk of overweight, obesity (Malik et al., 2006), heart diseases as well as tooth decay (Roos and Donly, 2002). Undergraduates are obese which is linked to the consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (Bleich et al., 2009). It was estimated that on average, the intake of carbonated beverages by undergraduates in school was around one can per day which is equivalent to 355 mLs or 12 ounces (Renwick and Nordmann, 2007). They contain high amounts of energy due to high sugar contents in the form of fluid which often do not give satiety in the same way as solid foods do (Brownell et al., 2009; Elfhag et al., 2007; Malik et al., 2006).

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), particularly carbonated soft drinks, may be a key contributor to the epidemic of overweight and obesity, by virtue of these beverages' high added sugar content, low satiety, and incomplete compensation for total energy (Malik, 2006). SSBs are considered high-glycemic index liquids that increase post-prandial blood glucose levels, decrease insulin sensitivity, and decrease satiety levels-resulting in overeating (Olsen et al., 2009).
Confectionery is related to the food items that are rich in sugar and often referred to as a confection (Stroud, 2008). Confectionery refers to the art of creating sugar based dessert forms, or subtleties (subtlety or sotelty), often with pastillage (Kennedy, 2008). According to Davidson et al., (2014) confectionery is the art of making confections, which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates. Confections include sweet foods, sweetmeats, digestive aids that are sweet, elaborate creations, and something amusing and frivolous (Richardson, 2002). Confectionery, delicacies or sweetmeats that have sugar as a principal ingredient, combined with coloring matter and flavoring and often with fruit or nuts (Stroud, 2008).
Food consumption patterns is the recognizable ways of eating foods. Food consumption pattern can be defined as that aspect of a lifestyle (or livelihood) that relates to the nature and amount of the different foods that the household considers adequate for fulfilling their needs (Ogunniyi, 2012). Food demand is only met in the aggregate, as there are profound disparities in access to food across geographic regions and across the spectrum of income at both the household and country levels (WHO, 2011).

Anthropometry is the study and technique of taking body measurements. It is used widely to measure the nutritional status of individuals or populations. Anthropometric assessments are useful because they provide a simple and practical way of describing the overall nutritional status of the population. Anthropometric indicators define the extent of the problems and could be used as one criterion in ranking areas and population groups by need, in this way allowing the targeting of appropriate interventions and informing decisions on resource allocation (Sinha, 2015).  Anthropometry is the single most universally applicable, inexpensive and non-invasive method available to assess the size, proportion and composition of human body (WHO, 1995). According to WHO, the ultimate intention of nutritional assessment is to improve human health (Amuta et al., 2009). Growth monitoring by anthropometric measurement during childhood and adolescent period, is not only an important health indicator but also a predictor of various morbidities in the community.

The increased consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) among undergraduates worldwide has raised much concern with regards to their influence on health (Te Morenga, Mallard and Mann 2012). High consumption of SSBs could increase the chances of one developing dental caries, cardiovascular disease, diabetes and obesity. SSBs contribute a substantial amount of kilojoules (KJ) to an individual’s total energy intake and many studies have associated the consumption of these beverages with the possible development of overweight and obesity (Te Morenga, Mallard and Mann 2012). Van den Berg, et al., (2013) report that University students often adopt sedentary behaviours, do not consume the recommended quantities of vegetables and fruits, and instead consume excessive amounts of foods and beverages that are high in added sugar and fat. Soft drinks consumption is still a controversial issue for public health and public policy. Over the years, numerous studies have been conducted into the possible links between soft drink intake and medical problems, the results of which, however, remain highly contested. Nevertheless, as a result, increasing emphasis is being placed on the health properties of soft drinks, by both the industry and the consumers. High intake of added sugar is a major characteristic of poor diet and an unhealthy life style that may be associated with increased prevalence of obesity and overweight by undergraduates (World Health Organization, 2003). The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommends reducing the intake of added sugar to control the obesity epidemic (World Health Organization, 2015). Sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) are considered major sources of added sugar in the diet (Luger et al., 2017). The Center for Disease Control and Prevention defines SSBs as drinks with added sugar in form of table sugar or high fructose corn syrup. SSBs include—but are not limited to—soft drinks (sodas), sports drinks, fruit drinks, tea and coffee drinks, energy drinks, sweetened milk or milk alternatives (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2010). Prior research on SSB intake in adults and children has linked its consumption with obesity, diabetes, and several demographics such as race, gender, age, and socioeconomic background. The majority of the prospective studies found positive associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity (Schulze et al., 2004). In a meta-analysis of 88 studies, an association between soft drink consumption and increased energy intake and body weight has been found (Vartanian et al., 2007). In a separate study, increased consumption of SSBs was associated with higher total and abdominal obesity in US adults aged 20-39 years (Mirmiran et al., 2015).

General objective of the study

The main objective of the study is to determine the consumption pattern of soft drinks, confectionaries and anthropometric status of undergraduate in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike.

The specific objectives of study are to;

i. assess the socio-demography characteristics of the subjects.

ii. determine the consumption pattern of soft drinks and confectionaries among the respondents.

iii. determine the anthropometric status of the studied group .

iv. determine the relationship between their socio-demographic characteristics, consumption pattern and their anthropometric status.

This study will help provide information on the consumption pattern of soft drinks and confectionaries among undergraduate students, as well as their anthropometric assessments.
The finding will be useful to students, nutritionists, dieticians, doctors, homo economists, parents, teachers and in fact, the general public in knowing the relationship between high consumption of soft drinks and confectionaries and overweight and obesity. This will help in making right choice of snacks and drinks so as to prevent the menace of obesity in our society.

Finding from this study will also make the school authorities to regulate the sale of soft drinks and confectionaries, and patronage to these snacks and drinks. 

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