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Product Code: 00006647

No of Pages: 78

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Malnutrition is a public health problem all over the world because of the devastating health, economic and social consequences. In recent years developing countries like Nigeria have been experiencing a nutritional transition in food choices from healthy to unhealthy food, as a result of this; the consumption pattern and lifestyle of young undergraduate have been affected. The purpose of study was to determine the consumption pattern of soft drinks, confectionaries and anthropometric status of undergraduates in Abia State University Umuahia Campus, Abia state. A  systematic sampling was adopted in determining the sample size among 389 made up of 227 males (58.4%) and 162 females (41.6%) participated in the study.  A questionnaire was validated by three lecturers in the department of human nutrition and dietetics to collect information on the socio-demographic characteristics, consumption pattern and anthropometric status of the subjects. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Statistical package for social sciences  (SPSS version 20) chi square test was used to find the relationship between their socio-demographic characteristics, their consumption pattern and their Anthropometric status. According to their Body mass index, it was observed that majority of the respondents (75.3%) were normal followed by (9.8%) who were Overweight, (3.1%) were obese and 4.1% were at risk of non communicable disease.  General results showed consumption of soft drinks and confectionaries was high. Due to increased concern of dietary related health problems in developing countries, consumption of light soft drinks can be encouraged because they contain low amount of energy but precaution should be taken to limit excessive intake.


LIST OF TABLES                                                                  vi
ABSTRACT                     vii

1.1 Statement of problem 3
1.2 objectives 4
1.2.1 General objectives of the study 4  
1.2.2 Specific objectives 4
1.3 significance of the study      5

CHAPTER 2     
LITERATURE REVIEW    6          
2.1 undergraduates 6
2.1.1 Adolescent 6
2.1.2 Young Adult 7
2.2 Nutrition and nutritional needs of undergraduates  7
2.2.1 Food Nutrients 8
2.2.2 Carbohydrates 8
2.2.3 Proteins 9
2.2.4 Fats 9
2.2.5 Vitamins and Minerals 10
2.2.6 Water 10
2.3 Soft drinks 10
2.3.1 Trends in Soft Drink consumption 11
2.4 Confectioneries  11
2.4.1 Trends in Confectioneries consumption 12
2.5 Anthropometry 12 
2.5.1 Weight 14
2.5.2 Height 14
2.5.3 Body mass index (BMI) 15
2.5.4 Waist Circumference (WC) 16
2.5.5 Hip Circumference (HC)  16
2.5.6 Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) 16
2.6 Factors associated with consumption of soft drinks and confectioneries 17
2.6.1  Personal Factors 17
2.6.2 Socio-Environmental Factors  18
2.6.3 Time constraint         19
 2.6.4 Advertisement 19
2.6.5 Behavioural Factor 20 
 2.7 Effects of increased soft drinks and confectioneries among undergraduate 21
2.7.1 Dental diseases  21
2.7.2 Overweight and Obesity 22
2.7.3 Diabetes 23
2.7.4 Hypertension  23
2.7.5 Liver Diseases 24
2.7.6 Micronutrient Deficiency 24
2.7.7 Heart Diseases 25
2.7.8 Cancer  25
2.7.9 Neurological Disorders 26
3.1 Study Design 27
3.2 Area of Study 27
3.3 Population of the Study             27
3.4 Sampling and Sampling Techniques          27
3.4.1 Sample Size Determination 27
3.4.2 Sampling procedure  29
3.5 Preliminary activities                                                             29
3.5.1 Preliminary visits 29
3.5.2 Training of Research Assistants 29
3.5.3 Informed Consent      30
3.6 Data Collection              30
3.6.1 Questionnaire Administration 30
3.6.2 Anthropometric Measurement 30
3.7 Data analysis             32
3.8 Statistical analysis              32

4.1 Socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents  33

5.1 Conclusion 47
5.2 Recommendations  47


Table 2.1   Classification of Body Mass Index (BMI)  15

Table 3.1 Body mass index category (Classification of Body Mass Index) (BMI)    31

Table 3.2 Combined recommendations of body mass index and waist circumference Cut-off Points made for Overweight or obesity, and association with disease risk 32

Table 3.3 World Health Organization cut-off points and risk of metabolic complications      32

Table 4.1 Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents   34

Table 4.2 Consumption pattern of soft drinks of the respondents 37

Table 4.3 Consumption pattern of confectionaries of the respondents        40

Table 4.4 Lifestyle pattern of the respondents 42

Table 4.5Anthropometric Status of the Undergraduates  44

Table 4.6 Relationship between anthropometric status and socio-economic characteristics   46


As stated by World Health Organization (2018) more than 1.9 billion adults worldwide (18 years and older) are overweight, 462 million are underweight and more than 600million are obese. An estimated 155 million children under the age of 5 years are suffering from stunting while 41million are either overweight or obese.

Confectionaries and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), which include soft drinks as well as energy drinks, fruit drinks and sports drinks, have been linked to weight gain and obesity in both adults and children (Malik et al., 2013; Te Morenga et al., 2012). The increased consumption of soft drink and confectionaries has raised much concern regarding their impact on health, as they contain empty calories, have a low satiety and facilitate an increased intake of foods that have very little or no nutritional value (Te Morenga et al., 2013).

Nutrition is one of the best drivers of development; it sparks a vicious cycle of socio economic improvements, such as increasing access to education and employment. Lack of knowledge of healthy food choices is known to negatively influence eating habits and nutritional status of University students (Kofi, 2018). Healthy eating patterns in childhood and adolescence promote optimal growth, and intellectual development; prevent immediate health problems such as reduced capacity for learning and work. It also prevent long-term health problems such as iron deficiency anaemia, obesity, eating disorders, dental caries, coronary heart disease, cancer, and stroke (Otuneye et al., 2017)
 In university campuses, lack of a central feeding facility for students has forced students to take responsibility of their feeding. As a result, most students in Nigerian universities lack funds or divert their feeding money for other needs and so skip meals, this predisposes them to malnutrition. The most prevalent habits seen in this age group include changing main meals for snacks, skipping breakfast, reducing the intake of fruits and vegetables and increases the consumption of soft drinks and confectioneries (Okafor et al., 2018) High consumption of imported and processed foods which are highly refined, high in sugar, fats and salt coupled with less physical activity greatly contribute to rising chronic diseases among young adults (Okafor et al., 2018).

The term, “Anthropometric” refers to comparative measurements of the body. Anthropometric measurements are a common criterion used for nutritional assessments and a reliable tool for determining changes in nutritional status. It is the measurement of the body parameters to indicate nutritional status. It involves physical measurements of weight, height and body compartments of fat and lean tissue. Anthropometric measurement stemmed from the interaction between several intricately linked concepts, including nutrition and infection, psychosocial stress and food contaminants. Factors mostly linked to socio-economic status and poverty indicated that body size was a signal for the quality of life (Smith, 2007). Types of anthropometric measurements include weight and height and as a result body mass index (BMI) (kg/m2). The body mass index (BMI) is a criterion used for describing overweight and obesity. Other anthropometric measurements includes: waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and skin fold thickness (Gibson, 2005).

Anthropometric measurements can be used to detect moderate and severe forms of malnutrition (both under and over nutrition). Good consumption pattern is an essential part of good anthropometric status, healthy nutrition is an important factor in preventing many specific health problems of young adults and adolescents such as obesity , overweight   diabetes, iron deficiency anaemia, cardiovascular diseases etc. (WHO, 2018).

1.1 Statement of problem 
All over the world the prevalence of overweight and obesity has been on the increase among University students.The prevalence of overweight and obesity is reported to be 10- 20.7% in Nigeria and 10.8-24% in South Africa (Peltzer et al., 2014 and Ejike and Ifeh, 2012.) In each year 15 million people die from non communicable diseases (NCDs) like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, obesity, hypertension and certain cancers eighty five percent are estimated to occur in low and middle income countries like Nigeria. Children, adults and elderly are all vulnerable to the risk factors contributing to non communicable disease (NCDs) by taking unhealthy diet and physical inactivity (WHO 2018). 

Malnutrition in all its forms include under nutrition (wasting, stunting, underweight), inadequate vitamins or mineral, overweight, obesity and resulting diet related non communicable diseases (WHO 2018). United State Agency for International Development and World Food Program stated that cognitive development and brain physiology among children and adolescents requires access to sufficient and nutrients rich foods at early stages of life (USAID and WFP, 2010). Under nutrition is often affected with micronutrient deficiencies, it also results to loss of fat and muscle mass, dry skin and hair, difficulty in concentration and depression e.t.c (Lizzie, 2018). Overweight and obesity linked to an unbalanced and unhealthy diet can lead to micronutrient deficiencies, increase risk of non communicable disease such as heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, stroke and certain cancer (WHO, 2019).

Malnutrition adversely affects school attendance and academic performance and social skills among students. It has been observed that health problem due to miserable nutritional status of students are among the most common cause of low school enrollment, high absenteeism, early dropout and unsatisfactory classroom performance (NHANES, 2007) .The busy lifestyle of undergraduates increases the risk of chronic diseases, some students do skip breakfast before going to school and tend to eat the most common snacks and drinks available in the University, example soft drinks and confectioneries. Some students consume large quantities without knowing the implications and problems associated with such large consumptions. Additionally, the adolescence life stage and early adulthood is a period of increasing independence with respect to food choices and food habits and experimentation with diets which may increase vulnerability to nutritional problems if unhealthy eating behaviors are adopted (Savage et al., 2007).  Hence the need for this study, to identify the consumption pattern of soft drinks and confectioneries and its effect on the anthropometric status of undergraduates in Abia State University, Umuahia Campus.

1.2 Objectives of the study
1.2.1 The general objective of the study is to:
Determine the consumption pattern of soft drinks, confectioneries and Anthropometric status Of Undergraduates in Abia State University, Umuahia campus.

1.2.2 Specific Objectives 
The specific objectives of the study are to:

1. Assess the socio-demographic characteristics of undergraduate students.

2. Determine the consumption pattern of soft drinks, confectionaries among the undergraduates.

3. Determine their anthropometric status.

4. Determine the relationship between their socio-demographic characteristics, consumption pattern and their anthropometric status

1.3 Significance of the study
The findings of the study will be useful to the general public especially dietitians, nutritionist, health practitioners, parents, lecturers and students in the following ways:

1. It will help in exposing lecturers, non academic staff and undergraduates to see the need to develop adequate consumption pattern so as to have a healthy lifestyle. 

2. It will serve as a means by which undergraduates can educate their parents, siblings, friends and relations e.t.c on the importance of healthy consumption to achieve healthy nutritional status.

3. The findings will be beneficial to the university authorities in regulating and managing the sales and consumption of these soft drinks and confectioneries by the students.

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