• 0 Review(s)

Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007566

No of Pages: 63

No of Chapters: 1-5

File Format: Microsoft Word

Price :



Body image is an individual’s self-perceptions and attitudes about his or her physical appearance, leading to either satisfaction or dissatisfaction. This study determined the body image perception, dietary habit and anthropometric status among female university students in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Abia State.

This study was a cross sectional survey that comprised the sample of 361 female college students aged between 17-34 years old randomly selected and completed a questionnaire on their body image perception, dietary habits and anthropometric measurements. Anthropometric parameters provide a lot of information about body composition and nutritional status (Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference were the taken anthropometric measurements). Data collected were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Students that perceived themselves as normal, overweight, underweight, and obese were 67.9%, 14.7%, 8.9%,7.5% and 1.15% respectively. The dietary habit of the students revealed that 80.6% of the respondents skip meals and the meal skipped was beakfast (42.3%).  The prevalence of obesity and overweight recorded 1.9% and 15.0%, respectively. Meanwhile, 72.6% of the university female students were categorized as having normal weight. Furthermore, 59.0% of the female college students were found to be at risk of abdominal obesity. There was no significant correlation between body image dissatisfaction with BMI.

Altering body image perception and required moderate-intensity physical activity should be promoted within weight loss program among college female students also knowledge on weight management, eating habit should be increased among undergraduates through nutrition education.


Title page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Table of contents                                                                                                        v

List of tables                                                                                                               viii

Abstract                                                                                                                      ix


CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION                                                                                                 

1.1 Background of the study                                                                                      1

1.2 Statement of the problem                                                                                     2

1.3 Objectives of the study                                                                                         3

1.3.1 General objectives of the study                                                                         3

1.3.2 Specific objectives of the study                                                                         3

1.4 Significance of the study                                                                                      4



2.1 Body Image Perception                                                                                        5

2.2 Body Image                                                                                                          6

2.2.1 Body Image and Dissatisfaction                                                                       7

2.2.2 Factors Affecting Body Image                                                                          8

2.3 Body Image and Effect on Health                                                                                   9

2.4 Healthy Lifestyle Behaviours                                                                               9

2.4.1 Barriers to Healthy Behaviours                                                                          10

2.5 Positive vs Negative body image                                                                          12       

2.6 Factors that affects body image                                                                           12

2.6.1 How media can affect body image                                                                    12

2.6.2 Body Image and Gender                                                                                   13

2.6.3 Body image and age      `                                                                                   13

2.6.4 Body Image and self-esteem                                                                             14

2.7 Dietary Habits                                                                                                       15

2.7.1 Nutrient intake and its effect                                                                             17 Effect of dietary fibre and whole grain                                                          17 Effect of fruits and vegetables                                                                       18       

2.7.2 Effects of dietary pattern                                                                                  19

2.7.3 Effects of dietary patterns on health                                                                 19

2.8 Anthropometry                                                                                                     20                   

2.9 Anthropometric Measurement                                                                              23                   

2.9.1 Weight measurement                                                                                         23

2.9.2 Height measurement                                                                                          23

2.9.3 Circumferences                                                                                                  24 Waist Circumference (WC)                                                                            24 Hip Circumference (HC)                                                                                24



3.1 Study Design                                                                                                        25

3.2 Study area                                                                                                             25       

3.3 Population of the study                                                                                        25

3.4 Sampling and sampling techniques                                                                       25       

3.41 Sampling size                                                                                                      25

3.4.2 Sampling procedure                                                                                           26

3.5 Preliminary activities                                                                                             26

3.5.1 Training of Research Assistants                                                                         26

3.6 Data Collection                                                                                                     27

3.6.1 Questionnaire Design                                                                                         27 Validation of Questionnaire                                                                           27

3.6.2 Anthropometric Measurements                                                                          27 Weight measurement                                                                                      27 Height measurement                                                                                       28 Body Mass Index                                                                                           28 Waist circumference                                                                                       28 Hip circumference                                                                                           28 Waist – Hip Ratio                                                                                           29

3.7 Data analysis                                                                                                         29       

3.8 Statistical analysis                                                                                                 29



4.1 Socio-demographic of respondents                                                                      30

4.2 Socio-economic characteristics of respondents’ parents                                       31

4.3 Students’ perception of body image                                                                     33

4.4 Dietary habits of respondents                                                                               35

4.5 Anthropometric status of respondents                                                                  37

4.6 Relationship between body mass index and waist-hip ratio of respondents        39



5.1 Conclusion                                                                                                            41

5.2 Recommendation                                                                                                  43


REFERENCES                                                                                                        44


Questionnaire                                                                                                              55












Table 4.1: Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the Students.        `                                   30

Table 4.2: Socio-Economic Characteristics of Students Parents                                            32

Table 4.3: Students |Per4ception of their Body Image                                                           34

Table 4.4: Dietary Habits of the Respondents                                                                        36

Table 4.5: Anthropometric Status of Respondent                                                                  38

Table 4.6: Relationship between Body Mass Index and Waist-Hip Ratio of Respondent    40













Body image is defined as “a person’s perceptions, thoughts, and feelings about his or her body” (Grogan, 2008). Body image depends on various factors: psychological components and socio-cultural influences such as family, peers, and ethnicity (Gross et al., 2005). Physiological functions such as appetite, food consumption and body weight are intricately linked to psychological constructs such as body image, self-esteem and psychosocial adjustment (Tykla, 2015). The mass media which generates aesthetic ideals are important in influencing the perception of one’s image and leading to a tortuous search for the ideal body. This creates real pressure that leads to internalization of a beauty ideal and to an inevitable desire to conform to it. Teenage girls especially perceive their body image based on values shared by peer groups (Pruneti et al., 2007). Some studies found out that every teenager imitates the body shape and image of socially appreciated persons such as artists, singers or popular persons (Khor et al., 2009). This results in pushing them to achieve a popular body images using uninformed dietary practices and unhealthy habits which affects desired growth. These malpractices of food habits among teenagers lead to deteriorated health among them (Grogan, 2008).

Adequate nutrition is the right proportion of food and nutrients needed for growth, energy and maintenance. Improved nutrition status plays an important role in the well-being of individuals and is critical for socioeconomic development (Nemati et al., 2008). Malnutrition is a pathological state resulting from a deficiency or wrong proportion of essential nutrients. Malnutrition has serious implications for people and communities thus, hindering the socioeconomic and human development of a nation as one of the most critical health issues because of its long lasting negative effects (Muller and Krawinkel, 2005; Akinyemi and Ibraheem, 2009; Khattak and Khan, 2009). Nutrition assessment is the system of determining conditions of nutritional health of a person, or a group of persons.

Nutrition status is assessed in different ways which includes; anthropometry, dietary intakes, biochemical and clinical methods. All these methods can be applied to the assessment of nutritional status of individuals or groups (Carraça et al., 2011).


Research has shown that females especially are not always happy with their body image (whether obese or thin) and as such are often conscious of what they eat, how they eat, where and when they eat, which may influence their feeding habits and thus leading to eating disorder (anorexia or bulimia nervosa) (Grogan, 2008).

Body image also affects many areas of psychological functions in females. These includes depression and anxiety which could lead to lack of confidence and impairment in social functioning (Yasemin and Huseyin, 2010).

 A negative body image may act as a barrier to physical participation. Individuals with a negative body image may be involved in social physique anxiety linked to real or unreal negative physical evaluation. Studies have shown that females whether active or inactive, are at greater risk of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating than men. Those who perceive themselves as overweight are more likely to do physical exercise to lose weight than those who do not feel that they are overweight. Weight misperception among overweight and obese adults is associated with less likelihood of interest in an attempt to lose weight and they do less physical activity (Duncan et al., 2011).

 University students may experience poor dietary habits. It has been reported that unhealthy dietary habits, such as irregular eating and skipping of breakfast are more frequent than those observed in high school students due to the increased time away from home and lack of ability and time to cook (Poobalan et al., 2014; Hilger et al., 2017). Health problems that are related to economic independence and sociocultural changes among university students are known to occur. These include an increase consumption of instant/processed foods and alcohol, low consumption of vegetables, fruits, and dairy products, and increasingly sedentary lifestyles (Beaudry et al., 2017). These reasons underscore the purpose of the study.


1.3.1 General objectives of the study

The general objective of the study is to examine the body image perception, dietary habit and anthropometric status of female students in Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike.


The specific objectives of the study are to:

1.      Determine the socio-economic status of the female students.

2.      Assess the body image perception of female students.

3.      Determine the food habits of the female students.

4.      Assess the anthropometric status of the students.

5.      To determine the relationship between body image perception and body mass index of students.


The research work will benefit female students of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike and help them to know about their body image perception. It will help nutritionist, Governmental and Non-Governmental organization, Ministry of health and Public health workers both in local and state levels to draw conclusions about the effect of perception on the dietary habit of female students in MOUAU in terms of healthy body weight and body image perception. It will also help policy makers in planning and implementing actions and intervention programmes.

 However, there are limited information on the perception on dietary habit and body image of females. Therefore, the research work will be a base line study to other researchers in the field.


Click “DOWNLOAD NOW” below to get the complete Projects


+(234) 0814 780 1594

Buyers has the right to create dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when you experience issue with the file received. 

Dispute can only be created when you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of contents and content of the file you received. shall either provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and Conditions are applied.

Buyers are expected to confirm that the material you are paying for is available on our website and you have selected the right material, you have also gone through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.

In case of payment for a material not available on, the management of has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that is available on our website within 48 hours.

You cannot change topic after receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.

Ratings & Reviews


No Review Found.

To Review

To Comment