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Product Code: 00008153

No of Pages: 122

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Chin-chin is a fried golden brown crunchy snack consumed by both children and adults. They are usually made from wheat grains which is not cultivated in tropical countries like Nigeria due to unfavourable climatic conditions. Chemical and sensory properties of chin-chin from blends of wheat, tiger nut seeds, and date palm fruit were investigated. Chin-chin were produced from flour blends (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40) of wheat flour and tiger nut respectively, while the date palm was constant. Chin-chin made with 100% wheat flour served as the control. Proximate composition, mineral, vitamin and phytochemical content, as well as sensory properties of the Chin-chin were evaluated using standard analytical procedures. Data generated were statistically analyzed by one way analysis of variance using Statistical Product for Service Solution version 22.0. The proximate composition revealed that the moisture content (5,05 to 6.09%), crude protein (8.77 to 9.86%), fat (22.12 to 26.12%), dietary fibre (0.33 to 2.68%), ash (0.38 to 1.84%), carbohydrate (55.55 to 61.24%), and energy value (483.46 to 492.32 kcal) of the chin-chin. Mineral like calcium (15.57 to 22.33 mg/100g), magnesium (40.12 to 42.17 mg/100g), potassium (89.11 to 105.01 mg/100g), phosphorus (14.17 to 69.63 mg/100g), sodium (2.88 to 3.15 mg/100g), zinc (0.57 to 0.95 mg/100g), iron (1.71 to 2.45 mg/100g), selenium (0.02 to 0.03 mg/100g) were obtained in the chin-chin.  The chin-chin possessed beta carotene (52.12 to 52.62 µg/100g), thiamine (0.28 to 0.47 µg/100g), riboflavin (0.73 to 0.93 µg/100g), vitamin C (2.17 to 2.74 µg/100g). The phytochemical content shows flavonoid (1.62 to 2.31 mg/100g), phytate (0.15 to 0.22 mg/100g), tannis (0.09 to 0.16 mg/100g), saponin (0.08 to 0.16 mg/100g) of the chin-chin. The sensory analysis of the cookies revealed that the mean score for appearance ranged from (4.70 to 8.55), taste (5.45 to 8.35), texture (6.10 to 8.00), aroma (5.15 to 7.95), and general acceptability (5.60 to 8.60) of the chin-chin. The study concluded that chin-chin produced from wheat, date palm and tiger nut flour blends could serve as good alternative to only wheat flour based chin-chin for patients of cardiovascular and diabetic disease and individuals too.



Title Page                                                                                                                                i

Certification                                                                                                                            ii

Dedication                                                                                                                              iii

Acknowledgements                                                                                                                iv

Table of Contents                                                                                                                   v

List of Tables                                                                                                                          ix

List of Figures                                                                                                                         x

Abstract                                                                                                                                  xi



1.1       Background of the Study                                                                                            1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                                           4

1.3       Objective of the Study                                                                                                5

1.3.1    General objective of the study                                                                                    5

1.3.2    Specific objective of the study                                                                                   5

1.4       Significance of the Study                                                                                           6



2.1       Wheat                                                                                                                         8

2.1.1    Nutritional value and health benefits of wheat                                                          9

2.1.2    Processing and food uses of wheat                                                                             11

2.2       Tiger nut                                                                                                                     13

2.2.1    Nutritional and therapeutic benefits of tiger nut                                                        14

2.2.2    Processing and food uses of tiger nut                                                                         17

2.3       Overview of Sugar                                                                                                      20

2.4       Date Palm Fruit as a Sugar Substitute                                                                        21

2.5       Composite Flour                                                                                                         23

2.6       Overview of Snacks                                                                                                    25

2.7       Chin-Chin                                                                                                                   26

2.8       Health Significance of Dietary Fibre                                                                          27

2.9       Food Complementation and Supplementation                                                           28

2.9.1    Basic requirements of food complementation and supplementation                                    28

2.9.2    Principles of food complementation and supplementation                                        29 Complementation and supplementation to improve nutritional value               29 Complementation and supplementation to restore nutrients lost during

            food processing                                                                                                           30 Complementation and supplementation as a means of delivering nutrients

            for preventing deficiency diseases                                                                             31

2.9.3    Steps in setting up a complementation and supplementation programme                 32

2.9.4    Benefits of food complementation and supplementation                                           33



3.1       Study Design                                                                                                              36

3.2       Sources Of Raw Materials                                                                                          36

3.3       Sample Preparation                                                                                                                            36

3.3.1    Production of tigernut flour                                                                                        36

3.3.2    Production of date fruit flour                                                                                      37

3.3       Formulation Of Composite Flour                                                                                                       40

3.4       Production Of Chin-Chin                                                                                           42

3.4       Methods Of Analyses                                                                                                 44

3.5       Sensory Evaluation                                                                                                                             44

3.6       Preparation and Packaging of Chin-Chin for Laboratory Analysis                                     44

3.7       Proximate Analysis                                                                                                     45

3.7.1    Determination of moisture content                                                                             45

3.7.2    Determination of ash content                                                                                     45

3.7.3    Determination of fat content                                                                                       46

3.7.4    Determination of crude fibre                                                                                      46

3.7.5    Determination of crude protein                                                                                  47

3.7.6    Determination of carbohydrate content                                                                      48

3.7.7    Determination of energy value                                                                                               48

3.8       Mineral Analysis                                                                                                        49

3.8.1    Determination of calcium and magnesium                                                                 49

3.8.2    Determination of phosphorus                                                                                                             50

3.8.3    Determination of potassium                                                                                                                                                               51

3.8.4    Determination of sodium                                                                                                                                                                    51

3.8.5    Determination of zinc                                                                                                                                                                         52

3.8.6    Determination of iron                                                                                                                                                                         53

3.8.7    Determination of selenium                                                                                                                                                                 53

3.9       Vitamin Analysis                                                                                                                                            54

3.9.1    Determination of β-carotene                                                                                                                           54

3.9.2    Determination of vitamin B1 (thiamin)                                                                                                                                              54

3.9.3    Determination of vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)                                                                  55

3.9.4    Determination of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)                                                              56

3.10     Phytochemical Analysis                                                                                                                     57

3.10.1 Determination of phenol                                                                                             57

3.10.2 Determination of flavonoid                                                                                        57

3.10.3 Determination of tannin                                                                                              58

3.10.4  Determination of saponin                                                                                                                   58

3.11     Statistical Analysis                                                                                                     59



4.1       Proximate Composition of the chin-chin                                                                   60

4.2       Mineral composition of the Chin-chin                                                                       67

4.3       Mineral Composition of the Chin-chin                                                                      70

4.4       Anti-nutrient composition of the chin-chin                                                                76

4.5       Sensory characteristics of the Chin-chin                                                                    80



5.1       Conclusion                                                                                                                  83

5.1        Recommendations                                                                                                84

            REFERENCES                                                                                                           85

            APPENDIX I                                                                                                              102       

            APPENDIX II                                                                                                             104                                                                                        



Table 3.1         Formulation of flour blends                                                                       40

Table 3.2         Recipe for the production of chin-chin from wheat and tiger nut flour    41 



Table 4.1         Proximate Composition of the chin-chin                                                  61

Table 4.2         vitamin composition of the Chin-chin                                                       68

Table 4.3         Mineral Composition of the Chin-chin                                                      71

Table 4.4         phytochemical composition of the chin-chin                                            77

Table 4.5         Sensory characteristics of the Chin-chin                                                   81



Figure 3.1        Flow chart for the production of tiger-nut flour                                 38

Figure 3.2        Flow chart for processing of date pulp flour                                      39

Figure 3.3        Flow chart for preparation of chin-chin                                             43






Snacks are portion of food often times smaller than regular meals. They have been part of human diet for a long time and have contributed tremendously to economy of every nation (Yilma and Admassu, 2019). The demand for snacks is attributed to the rapid population and urbanization of both developed and developing countries (Ugwuanyi et al., 2020). Snacks contribute an important part of many consumers’ daily nutrient and caloric intake (Awoyale et al., 2011). The most widely consumed snacks are cereal based products, which generally are low in nutrient density. Snacks are generally regarded as convenience food and have been part of the human diet for a long time (Adebayo-Oyetoro et al., 2017). Snacks are cheap, easy to eat and readily available on the streets, shops, schools, among others (Ugwuanyi et al., 2020).


Chin-chin is a fried golden brown crunchy wheat flour-based snack, popular in Nigeria amongst several age brackets (Adebayo-Oyetoro et al., 2017). It is available in various shapes and sizes. The wide acceptance of chin-chin has promoted commercial production and marketing of the product by entrepreneurs (Adebayo-Oyetoro et al., 2017). Production of chin-chin entails mixing flour and ingredients like salt, ground nutmeg, sugar, powdered milk, baking powder, margarine and water in a bowl prior to kneading, rolling and cutting into small sizes before frying (Ndife et al., 2020). However, many situations such as the fact that Nigeria spend much money importing wheat commonly used in chin-chin production (Nwanekezi, 2013) and the fact that excessive consumption of sugar is detrimental to human health (Lustig et al., 2012) prompted replacement of sugar with date palm flour.

Date palm fruit (Phonenix dactylifera) is locally known as “debino’’ in Hausa language from the family of Aracaceae (Hamza et al., 2014), is a known fruit for its sugary taste. The fruit is a drupe in which the outer fleshy part consists of the pulp and the pericarp surrounding a shell of hard endocarp with the seed inside (Farheena et al., 2015).  According to Dada et al. (2012), date palm fruits consist of more than 70% sugar mainly glucose and fructose. It is high in energy value thus making it an ideal replacement for sugar (sucrose) in the biscuit recipe. It is also of great nutritional benefit because it reduces the risk of increasing blood sugar level of diabetic patients, and rich in fiber (Hamza et al., 2014), antioxidants, and flavonoids such as beta carotene, lutenin and zeaxanthin. It is also an excellent source of iron, copper, calcium, vitamin A and B2 (Farheena et al., 2015).


Wheat (Triticum spp.) is one of the major grains in the diet of a vast proportion of the world’s population (Gayathri and Rashmi, 2016). It has therefore a great impact on the nutritional quality of the meals consumed by a large number of people. Although wheat’s ability to produce high yields under a wide range of conditions is one reason for its popularity compared to other cereals, the most important factor is the capability of wheat gluten proteins to form viscoelastic dough, which is required to bake leavened bread in particular (Adebayo-Oyetoro et al., 2017). These gluten proteins are necessary for the production of the great variety of foods associated with wheat around the world. The total annual production of wheat for year 2016 as at June is put at 724 million metric tonnes (FAO/WHO, 2016). Wheat provides substantial amounts of a number of beneficial nutrients, notably vitamins (B vitamins), dietary fiber, and phytochemicals (Shewry and Hey, 2015). Wheat have been reported to provide protection against diseases like constipation, ishaemia, heart disease, diverticulum, appendicitis, diabetes and obesity (Kumar et al., 2011), mostly when consumed as whole grain. Refining of wheat flour has long been reported to lower the quality of wheat based products from the health standpoint and as well cause reduction in nutrients such as dietary fibre and micronutrients  (Adebayo-Oyetoro et al., 2017), hence the need to enrich chin-chin with tiger nut.


Tiger nut (Cyperus esculenta) also known as “akiawusa” in Igbo (Ogbonna et al., 2013) is an underutilized crop (Ogbonna et al., 2013). Tiger nut is rich in phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and protective nutrients like dietary fibre (Suleiman et al., 2018). Chukwu et al. (2013) reported that fresh tiger nut possess 41.75 mg/100g iron, 34.77 mg/100g zinc and 41.05 mg/100g copper. Tiger nut contains digestive enzymes like catalase, lipase and amylase. These enzymes help to alleviate indigestion, flatulence and diarrhea (Allouh et al., 2015). Consumption of tiger nut enhances digestion process, in addition to treatment of diarrhoea and intestinal inflammation (colitis) (Nwobosi et al., 2013). In the light of these, this study seeks to produce and evaluate the chemical and sensory properties of chin-chin enriched with tiger nut and date flour.


In today’s era, family life is ever completely busy and demanding than before. This and the fact that snacks are always readily available, ready-to-eat and as well possess sweet taste make people to reduce intake of balanced diet. People frequently consume snacks of which most of them are made from only wheat flour to quench hunger. They sometimes use it for meal replacement and do not care if it is a balanced diet or not. Frequent consumption of such food products gives rise to micronutrient deficiency (Duffey et al., 2013).


The demand for snacks such as chin-chin is attributed to the rapid population and urbanization of both developed and developing countries. Wheat flour basically used in chin-chin production due to its quality characteristics such as gluten results to its importation. This triggers loss of foreign exchange and as well as displacement of local food crops like tiger nut and date fruit (Nwanekezi, 2013).


Nigeria spends most of its foreign exchange on importation of sugar. This depletes the country’s foreign exchange reserve (Nwanekezi et al., 2015). Furthermore, frequent intake of sugar contributes in causing metabolic problems which includes but not limited to type II diabetes and obesity (Peter-Ikechukwu et al., 2017).

Specifically, studies have shown that individuals with adequate intake (AI) of dietary fibre appear to be at lower risk for developing stroke (Zhang et al., 2013), cardiovascular diseases (Threapleton et al., 2013), type-2 diabetes (Yao et al., 2014), and appears to improve immune function through gut health and fibre-microbiota interactions (Dong et al., 2016). Despite these benefits, most people fall short of the recommended daily requirement, averaging on 15 grams per day, far below the suggested daily fibre intake of 25 to 38 grams for children, adolescents and adults (Slavin, 2018).


Tiger nut is an underutilized crop (Ogbonna et al., 2013). In Nigeria, it is basically consumed due to its tasty extract whereas most consumers frequently discard its fibre which is highly nutritious.


1.3.1 General objective of the study

The general objective of this study is to produce and evaluate the chemical and sensory properties of chin-chin produced with wheat flour, enriched with tiger nut and date flour.

1.3.2 Specific objective of the study

The specific objectives are to:

i.               produce chin-chin from wheat flour enriched with date palm and tiger nut flour

ii.              determine the proximate composition (Moisture, fat, fibre, ash, protein and carbohydrate content) of the chin-chin

iii.            calculate the energy value of the chin-chin

iv.            evaluate the mineral content (Ca, Mg, K, P, Na, Zn, Fe and Se) of the chin-chin

v.              evaluate the vitamin content (Vitamin A, B1, B2 and C) of the chin-chin

vi.            determine the phytochemical content (flavonoid, phenol, tannin and saponin) of the chin-chin

vii.           carry out sensory evaluation (appearance, taste, mouth-feel, consistency, crispiness and general acceptability) on the chin-chin.



Success of this work will lead to immense production of chin-chin that will proffer solution to the nutritional needs of those with some health challenges like diabetes, obesity and heart-related diseases, as it will give them the opportunity to enjoy chin-chin like everyone else.

The wheat-tiger nut chin-chin sweetened with date palm flour will contribute in reducing the huge amount Nigeria spend in importation of sugar and wheat, increase utilization of tiger nut and date fruit, provide a novel snack product and contribute in eradicating micronutrient deficiency in Nigeria.

Frequent consumption of chin-chin produced in this study is a cost-effective means of obtaining dietary fibre which is documented to be associated with lower risk of constipation by lowering stool weight and transit time; reducing risk of heart diseases and lowering blood cholesterol and reducing risk of colon cancer (Adebayo-Oyetoro et al., 2017).

Chin-chin producing industries in Nigeria will find the recipe, methodology for processing the wheat-tiger nut chin-chin enriched with date fruit and outcome of this research highly valuable. Embracing production of wheat-tiger nut chin-chin enriched with date fruit will be of economic advantage to tiger nut and date fruit farmers. Dieticians in developing nations like Nigeria will also find this biscuit highly imperative for management of patients with micronutrients and dietary fibre deficiency.

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