• 0 Review(s)

Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007568

No of Pages: 160

No of Chapters: 1-5

File Format: Microsoft Word

Price :



This study evaluated thechemical composition and amino acid profile of some selected indigenous dishes in Edo state. The indigenous dishes (Okro soup, black soup, owo soup, ogbono soup and ewedu soup) were prepared using traditional methods and subsequently analyzed using standard methods. The data analysis was one way (ANOVA) and SPSS (Version 23.0). The result shows that, the proximate composition ranged from carbohydrate (2.55±0.01 to 14.11±0.01), moisture (63.33±0.01 to 73.33±0.01) crude protein (7.34±0.01 to 14.45±0.01) fat (3.96±0.01 to 10.96±0.01), crude fibre (0.41±0.01 to 3.41±0.01) ash (0.56±0.01 to 4.65±0.01) and energy value (122.24±0.13 to 169.24±0.13). mineral composition ranged from iron (mg) (0.30±0.01 to 10.86±0.01), zinc (mg) (0.42±0.02 to 0.57±0.01), potassium (mg) (11.52±0.02 to 57.41±0.01), sodium (mg) (3.67±0.01 to 24.62±0.02), calcium (mg) (12.02±0.01 to 70.11±0.01), magnesium (mg) (4.67±0.01 to 35.75±0.01), and phosphorus (mg) (16.91±0.02 to 52.68±0.01). Vitamin compositions of the soups ranged from carotenoid (mg) (2.46±0.01 to 13.09±0.01), thiamin (mg) (1.82±0.01 to 2.27±0.01), riboflavin (mg) (1.74±0.01 to 2.19±0.01), niacin (mg) (0.65±0.01 to 0.82±0.03), ascorbic acid (mg) (14.17±0.01 to 30.43±0.01) and tocopherol (mg) (0.92±0.01 to 2.34±0.01). The phytochemical and antinutrient compositions of the soups ranged from saponin (mg) (0.25±0.01 to 0.36±0.40), phenol (mg) (0.43±0.01 to 0.78±0.01), flavonoid (mg) (1.34±0.01 to 2.01±0.01), tannin (mg) (0.42±0.01 to 0.62±0.00), phytate (mg) (0.24±0.01 to 0.49±0.01), trypsin inhibitor (mg) (0.16±0.01 to 0.37±0.01). This study established that the selected indigenous dishes (Owo soup, Ewedu soup, Ogbono soup, Black soup and Okro soup) are rich sources of indispensable nutrients. Consequently, they have the potential to make significant contributions to consumptions of nutrients such as proteins, fat, crude fibre, carbohydrates as well as some minerals, vitamins and phytochemicals. Findings of this study should be reflected in the country-specific food composition database so that nutrient intake assessment or provision of dietary guidance using such food composition database as a reference material could be more effective.



TITLE PAGE                                                                                                             i

CERTIFICATION                                                                                                     ii                                                                                                                          

DEDICATION                                                                                                           iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS                                                                                       iv

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                                                             v

LIST OF TABLE                                                                                                       viii                 

 LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                                  ix                                                                ABSTRACT                                                                                                               x         


INTRODUCTION                                                                                                    1

1.1       Statement of problem                                                                                     3

1.2       Objective of the study                                                                                                4

1.2.1    General objective                                                                                            4

1.2.2        Specific objective                                                                                            4

1.3       Significance of the study                                                                                5



LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                                       6

2.1       Edo state food system                                                                                                6

2.2       Black soup                                                                                                      7

2.2.1    Method of preparation                                                                                             7

2.2.2    Scent leaf (Ocimum gratissimum)                                                                  8 Use of Scent leaf                                                                                            8

2.2.3    Uziza leaf                                                                                                        9

2.2.3.   Nutritional value of uziza leaf                                                                        9

2.2.4    Bitter leaf                                                                                                        10 Nutritional Composition of bitter leaf                                                                        10

2.3       Owo benin soup                                                                                              10

2.3.1    Method of preparation                                                                                                11

2.4       Bush okra leaf (ewedu) soup                                                                          11

2.4 1    Method of preparation                                                                                                11

2.4.2    Bush okra leaf (Ewedu leaf)                                                                           12

2.4.3    Nutritional value of bush okra                                                                        13

2.5       Okra soup                                                                                                        13

2.5.1    Cooking directions                                                                                          14

2.5.2    Nutritional composition of okra                                                                      14

2.6       Ogbono soup                                                                                                   16

2.6.1 Method of preparation                                                                                       17


MATERIALS AND METHODS                                                                            19

3.1       Study design                                                                                                   19

3.2       Area of study                                                                                                  19

3.3       Population of the study                                                                                  20

3.3       Sampling and sampling technique                                                                  20

3.3.2    Construction and validation of questionnaires                                               20

3.4       Collection of samples                                                                                      20

3.5       Preparation of samples                                                                                    21

3.6       Chemical analysis                                                                                            25

3.6.1    Determination of amino acids                                                                         25

3.6.2    Proximate composition                                                                                   26 Determination of moisture content                                                                 26 Determination of ash content                                                                         26 Determination of crude Fibre content                                                            27 Determination of protein content                                                                   27 Determination of fat content                                                                          28 Determination of carbohydrates content                                                        29 Determination of energy                                                                                 29

3.6.3    Determination of minerals                                                                              29 Iron determination                                                                                          29 Determination of zinc                                                                                     30 Determination of phosphorous                                                                        31 Determination of potassium and Sodium content                                          32 Determination of calcium content                                                                  32

3.6.4 Vitamin analysis                                                                                                 33 Determination of thiamine content                                                                 33 Determination of niacin content                                                                     33 Determination of riboflavin content                                                               34 Determination of vitamin E                                                                            34 Vitamin C determination                                                                                36

3.6.5    Phytochemical and anti-nutritional Analysis                                                  37 Alkaloid determination                                                                                   37 Determination of tannin                                                                                  37 Flavonoid determination                                                                                 38 Phenol determination                                                                                      39 Determination of phytate                                                                                40 Determination of saponin                                                                               40 Determination of carotenoids                                                                         41 Oxalate determination (titration method)                                                       42

3.7       Statistical analysis                                                                                           42



RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                                              43

4.1       Socio demographic characteristics of the respondents                                   43

4.2       Proximate compositions of okro soup, black soup,

            owo soup, ogbono soup and ewedu soup                                                       45

4.2.1 Proximate compositions of ewedu soup                                                            45

4.2.2    Proximate compositions of black soup                                                           48

4.2.3    Proximate compositions of ogbono soup                                                        51

4.2.4    Proximate compositions of okro soup                                                             53

4.2.5    Proximate compositions of owo soup                                                             55

4.3       Mineral compositions of okro soup, black soup,

            owo soup, ogbono soup and ewedu soup                                                       57

4.3.1    Mineral compositions of ewedu soup                                                             57

4.3.2    Mineral compositions of black soup                                                               60

4.3.3    Mineral compositions of ogbono soup                                                            63

4.3.4    Mineral compositions of okro soup                                                                 64

4.3.5    Mineral compositions of owo soup                                                                 66

4.4       Vitamin content of okro soup, black soup,

            owo soup,ogbono soup and ewedu soup                                                        68

4.4.1    Vitamin compositions of ewedu soup                                                            68

4.4.2    Vitamin compositions of okro soup                                                                71

4.4.3    Vitamin compositions of black soup                                                               73

4.4.4    Vitamin compositions of ogbono soup                                                           75

4.4.5    Vitamin compositions of owo soup                                                                76

4.5:      Phytochemical and antinutrient compositions of okro soup,

            black soup, owo soup, ogbono soup and ewedu soup                                                79

4.5.1    Phytochemical compositions of okro soup                                                     79

4.5.2    Phytochemical compositions of black soup                                                    80

4.5.3    Phytochemical compositions of owo soup                                                      80

4.5.4    Phytochemical compositions of ogbono soup                                                 81

4.5.5    Phytochemical compositions of ewedu soup                                                  82

4.5.6    Antinutrient compositions of okro soup                                                         85

4.5.7    Antinutrient compositions of black soup                                                        86

4.5.8    Antinutrient compositions of owo soup                                                         86

4.5.9    Antinutrient compositions of ogbono soup                                                    87

4.5.10 Antinutrient compositions of ewedu soup                                                      88

4.6:      Amino acid composition of okro soup, black soup,

            owo soup,ogbono soup and ewedu soup                                                        89

4.6.1    Amino acid compositions of okro soup                                                          89

4.6.2    Amino acid compositions of black soup                                                         95

4.6.3    Amino acid compositions of owo soup                                                          103

4.6.4    Amino acid compositions of ogbono soup                                                     109

4.6.5    Amino acid compositions of ewedu soup                                                       107



CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS                                                  112

5.1       Conclusions                                                                                                     112

5.2       Recommendations                                                                                          121


REFERENCES                                                                                              123













Table 3.5.1:     Recipe for preparation of black soup                                                  21

Table 3.5.2:     Recipe for preparation of owo soup                                                   22

Table 3.5.3:     Recipe for preparation of ogbono soup                                              23

Table 3.5.4:     Recipe for preparation of ewedu soup                                                23

Table 3.5.5:     Recipe for preparation of okra soup                                                   24

Table 4.1:        Socio demographic characteristics of the respondents                       44

Table 4.1.1      Choice of indigenous dishes in Edo state                                           45

Table 4.2:        Proximate compositions of okro soup, black soup, owo soup,

                        ogbono soup and ewedu soup                                                            47

Table 4.3:        Mineral compositions of okro soup, black soup, owo soup,

            ogbono soup and ewedu soup                                                            60

Table 4.4:        Vitamin compositions of okro soup, black soup, owo soup,

            ogbono soup and ewedu soup                                                            72

Table 4.5:        Phytochemical and antinutrient compositions of okro soup,

            black soup, owo soup, ogbono soup and ewedu soup                                    85

Table 4.6:        Amino acid composition of okro soup, black soup, owo soup,

            ogbono soup and ewedu soup                                                                        97









The challenge for agricultural practices to increase food production and obtain food security still persists after 40 years of the green revolution (Hobbs, 2007). Poverty and food insecurity seriously constrain the accessibility of nutritious diets that have high protein quality, adequate micronutrient content and bioavailability, macronutrients and essential fatty acids, and high nutrient density (Omueti, 2009). The typical diets of vulnerable populations with high prevalence of malnutrition and under nutrition consist predominantly of starch-rich staples, such as a cereal or tuber, with limited amounts of fruits, vegetables, legumes and pulses (Solomon and Owolawashe, 2007). Such diets are bulky, have low nutrient density and poor bioavailability of minerals and vitamins and therefore result in impaired growth, development and a host of chronic diseases. Investigations on economically viable indigenous food ingredients as alternative strategies to curb under nutrition and food insecurity are of utmost importance to broaden the essential nutrient sources for human beings (Barba de la Rosa et al., 2009). Faced with increasing food shortages, agriculturalists and food scientists are becoming increasingly interested in previously neglected tropical grains and indigenous vegetables such as finger millet, amaranth grain, pigeon pea, field bean, pumpkin, sweet potatoes drumstick leaves, amaranth leaves and pumpkin leaves (Islam, 2006).

Indigenous foods are foods that have their origin in a region, are culturally acceptable and adapted to the local climatic conditions which have been consumed traditionally by the inhabitants as opposed to exotic foods which have been introduced from other regions of the world (Catherine et al., 2013). Indigenous foods are rich and inexpensive sources of protein, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, minerals and vitamins to millions of peoples in developed and developing countries, and are some of the basic foods of the indigenous populations of Africa (Luthria and Pastor-Corrales, 2006). Further, adaptation to adverse environmental conditions, resistance to pests, cultural acceptability and sufficient nutritional qualities are the key advantages of these indigenous foods. In developing countries like Nigeria, due to high cost and limited access to animal food products that provide high intakes of minerals such as iron and zinc, the main dietary sources of minerals are cereals and legumes. Traditional plant foods are believed to be highly nutritious; containing high levels of both vitamins and minerals (Orech et al., 2007). The first Millennium Development Goal is to “eradicate extreme poverty and hunger by 2015” and the nutrition indicator in Nigeria is “to halve the prevalence of underweight in children less than five years old from 35.5 per cent in 1990 to 16.25 per cent in 2015” (Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS)/ Ministry of Health (MH), 2010).

Malnutrition has been defined as inadequate or excess intake of one or more nutrients. Under nutrition appears when nutritional reserves are depleted and nutrient and energy intake is insufficient to meet the day-to-day needs or added metabolic stress (World Health Organisation (WHO)/ WFP/ United Nations Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF), 2008). The state of food insecurity in the world estimates the total incidence of undernourishment in the developing countries at 780-798 million in 1999/2001 (FAO, 2005). In Nigeria, malnutrition accounts for 38% of all deaths in children under five years of age, of which 4% is as a result of severe, and 34% a result of mild and moderate malnutrition (WHO/WFP/UNICEF, 2008). Malnutrition has always been a concern of the underprivileged in the developing countries including Nigeria. The incidence of micronutrient and macronutrient malnutrition among the vulnerable groups in Nigeria, necessitate the need to explore underutilized indigenous foods to overcome nutritional disorders. Vulnerable groups are the population groups living with severe health problems and compromised immunity level due to inadequate food intakes and poverty. Dietary diversification is the most important factor in ensuring intake of adequate nutrients from indigenous foods. Lack of diversity in basic staple foods creates poverty traps and negatively affects longer-term food security. Data on nutrient composition of indigenous foods with potential to address nutrition in Nigeria is still very limited in spite of the incidences of hunger and malnutrition. This study therefore aims to identify and evaluate the nutritional composition and amino acid profile of indigenous foods in Edo state, Nigeria.



Traditional food systems comprises of indigenous and introduced plant and animal species, cultivated and wild, which are culturally acceptable foods within the natural environment of particular cultural groups (Roche et al., 2008). It includes socio-cultural meanings, acquisition and processing techniques, use, composition and nutritional consequences for people using the food (Roche et al., 2008). Traditional food systems are of great cultural value to indigenous peoples because it promotes their health and wellbeing, it is affordable and accessible and it is also protective of their ecosystems (Roche etal., 2008). Environmental, cultural and personal factors influence people’s food choices depending on availability, preparation and processing techniques and technologies, biological needs, among others (Johns and Sthapit, 2004).  

Traditional dishes are amongst the oldest and deeply ingrained aspects of African culture. The Edo communities were assimilated by migrants as such lost much of their cultural identity, such as knowledge of their traditional dishes (Katz and Weaver, 2003). Interestingly, Eaton and Konner (1995) investigated dietary shifts over several millennia in Africa. They concluded that the human diet was far superior with the hunting and gathering subsistence of Paleolithic times as compared with the present-day dishes largely based on processed and manufactured foods. External influences (Western life styles) caused changes in African dishes. This has never been more apparent than the present day Nigeria and Ibaji community in particular. The faster people adopt new food pattern, the less likely their traditional dishes knowledge will be passed on to history.Evidenced of the richness of their traditional African dishes is currently on nutrient content of the dishes. This new evidence has the potential to trigger more thorough study of traditional Nigerian dishes today (Vanden et al., 2000; Wu and Wall, 2000). It is imperative to collect detailed data on some traditional Nigerian dishes, particularly those of Edo state in Nigeria that are at the verge of extinction.


1.2.1 General objective

The general objective of this study will be to determine the chemical composition and amino acid profile of some selected indigenous dishes in Edo state.


1.2.2 Specific objective

The specific objectives of the study will be:

1.      To identify the indigenous dishes in Edo State.

2.      To assess the proximate composition (moisture, protein, fat, ash, crude fibre and energy) of some selected indigenous dishes in Edo state.

3.      To determine the mineral composition (iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorous, sodium) of some selected indigenous dishes in Edo state.

4.      To determine the vitamin composition (Vitamin A, B1, B2, B3, C and E) of some selected indigenous dishes in Edo state.

5.      To determine the anti-nutrient content (Tannin, phytate, phenol, saponin, flavonoid and trypsin inhibitor) of some selected indigenous dishes in Edo state.

6.      To evaluate the amino acid profile of some selected indigenous dishes in Edo state.


This work is intended to provide insight and encourage the consumption of indigenous dishes in Nigeria in order to add to list of food for diet choices which includes:

1.      To promote consumption of indigenous dishes within different ethnic groups so as to reduce occurrences of some nutrient and micronutrient deficiencies.

2.      Providing an overview of the chemical composition of in indigenous dishes.

3.      The result of this work could add to information for compiling Nigerian food composition table.

4.      Raising awareness and inspiring study of traditional dishes may be of significant cultural and health related importance for the indigenous people of Edo State, Nigeria.



Click “DOWNLOAD NOW” below to get the complete Projects


+(234) 0814 780 1594

Buyers has the right to create dispute within seven (7) days of purchase for 100% refund request when you experience issue with the file received. 

Dispute can only be created when you receive a corrupt file, a wrong file or irregularities in the table of contents and content of the file you received. shall either provide the appropriate file within 48hrs or send refund excluding your bank transaction charges. Term and Conditions are applied.

Buyers are expected to confirm that the material you are paying for is available on our website and you have selected the right material, you have also gone through the preliminary pages and it interests you before payment. DO NOT MAKE BANK PAYMENT IF YOUR TOPIC IS NOT ON THE WEBSITE.

In case of payment for a material not available on, the management of has the right to keep your money until you send a topic that is available on our website within 48 hours.

You cannot change topic after receiving material of the topic you ordered and paid for.

Ratings & Reviews


No Review Found.

To Review

To Comment