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Product Code: 00007565

No of Pages: 90

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Fish flour is a product derived from dried fish which are edible as a result of its nutrient composition. This study evaluated the nutritive value of fish flour obtained from catfish, mackerel and croaker fish species. Croaker and mackerel fish species were purchased from Shoprite supermarket at Amuzukwu off Uwalaka road of Umuahia North Local Government Area while catfish species were purchased from Michael Okpara University of Agriculture (MOUAU fish farm), Umudike. The three fish species were degutted, washed, oven dried (550C for 8 hours) and milled with kitchen blender. The fish flours were obtained after processing the fishes. Proximate, dietary fiber and amino acids were analyzed with standard methods. The proximate composition showed that the moisture content (3.29%) of sample B (mackerel fish flour) was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the other samples. However, the crude protein and ash contents of sample C (Croaker fish flour) with values of 81.99 and 7.24%, respectively, were significantly (P<0.05) higher than the other fish flours obtained from catfish and mackerel fish. The dietary fiber of sample A (catfish flour) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in soluble, insoluble and total dietary fiber contents (0.39, 0.21 and 0.60 mg/100g), respectively, than the other fish flours. The amino acid profiles of sample C (Croaker fish flour) were significantly (P<0.05) higher in seven of the essential amino acids which included leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, valine, methionine, histidine and threonine with values of 7.12, 7.48, 4.01, 4.42, 2.25, 2.63, 4.17g/100g, respectively which met the recommended daily intake of amount stated by Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization/United Nations University. Sample B was higher in isoleucine (3.61g) and tryptophan (1.01g) contents. The non-essential amino acid contents of sample C were significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of samples A and B, respectively. Therefore this study indicated that Sample C possessed higher nutritive value and hence could be utilized in different ways such as fortification of complementary foods.


Title Page                                                                                                        i

Certification                                                                                                    ii

Dedication                                                                                                      iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                          iv

Table of contents                                                                                            v

List of tables                                                                                                   viii

List of figures                                                                                                 ix

Abstract                                                                                                          x


INTRODUCTION                                                                                        1

1.1       Statement of problem                                                                         3

1.2       Objectives of the study                                                                       5

1.3       Significance of the study                                                                    6


LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                           7

2.1       Fish                                                                                                     7

2.1.1    Anatomy of fish                                                                                  8

2.1.2    Taxonomy of fish                                                                                11

2.1.3    Freshness of fish                                                                                 11

2.2       Causes of spoilage of fish                                                                   12

2.2.1    Process of spoilage                                                                              16

2.2.2    Types of fish spoilage                                                                         19

2.3       Processing and uses of fish                                                                 22

2.3.1    Processing of fish                                                                                22

2.3.2    Uses of fish                                                                                         23

2.4       Health benefit of fish                                                                          24

2.5       Catfish (Ictalurus Punctatus)                                                              25

2.5.1    Habitat and ecology of catfish                                                           26

2.6       Croaker (Micropogonias undulatus)                                                   26

2.6.1    Habitat and ecology of croaker                                                          28

2.7       Mackerel (Tranchurus symmetricus)                                                   28

2.7.1    Habitat and ecology of mackerel                                                        29

2.8       Fish and human nutrition                                                                    30

2.9       Chemical composition of fish                                                             31

2.10     Amino acid content of fish                                                                 32

2.11     Economic importance of fish                                                              37

2.12     Uses of fish in food product                                                               38


MATERIALS AND METHODS                                                                42

3.1       Experimental design                                                                           42

3.2       Sample collection                                                                                42

3.3       Sample preparation                                                                             42

3.3.1    Preparation of flour from the three fish species                                  42 Preparation of catfish flour                                                                 42 Preparation of mackerel fish flour                                                      44 Preparation of croaker fish flour                                                         46

3.4       Packaging and storage of sample                                                        48

3.5       Cost analysis                                                                                       48

3.6       Chemical analysis                                                                                48

3.6.1    Proximate composition                                                                       48 Determination of moisture content                                                     48 Determination of ash                                                                          49 Determination of fat                                                                           50 Determination of protein                                                                    50 Determination of dietary fiber                                                            51 Determination of carbohydrate                                                           52

3.7       Determination of amino acid profile                                                   53

3.7.1    Reagent/ chemical and materials                                                         53

3.7.2    Extraction and analysis                                                                       53

3.7.3    Procedure                                                                                            53

3.8       Statistical analysis                                                                               54


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION                                                                  55

4.1       Proximate composition of the three fish flour                                    55

4.2       Dietary fiber composition of the three fish flour                                59

4.3       Amino acid profile of the three fish flour                                           62

4.4       Cost analysis of the three fish species                                                68


CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION                                        69

5.1       Conclusion                                                                                          69

5.2       Recommendation                                                                                70

REFERENCES                                                                                            71


Tables                                                                                                             Pages

2.1       Chemical composition of catfish, croaker and mackerel                    32

2.2       Amino acid profile of mackerel                                                          26

2.3       Amino acid profile of croaker                                                             35

2.4       Amino acid profile of catfish                                                              36

3.5       Cost analysis of the three fish species                                                48

4.1       Proximate composition of fish flour obtained from catfish, mackerel and croaker                                                                                                                58

4.2       Dietary fiber composition of fish flour obtained from catfish, mackerel and croaker                                                                                                           61

4.3       Amino acid profile of fish flour obtained from catfish, mackerel and croaker                                                                                                          67

4.4       Cost analysis of the three fish species used in the production of the fish flours     68                                                                                                                                                                   




Figures                                                                                                           Pages

3.2.1    Flow chart of catfish flour                                                                  43

3.2.2    Flow chart of mackerel fish flour                                                       45

3.3.3    Flow chart of croaker fish flour                                                          47








Fish is a scaly skinned vertebrate that swims in water and breathes using gills. “Vertebrate” means that a fish has a skeleton with a spine. Most fish have a skeleton made from bone, just like amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. There are more than 33,000 species of fish that can be found in the water depending on the composition of the water (Helfman et al., 2004; Lecointre and Le-Guyader, 2007).

Fish flour is a product derived from dried fish of which can be edible as a result of its nutrient composition. The nutritional enhancement of the food products has attracted attention due to increased interest for healthier foods in recent years (Shandilya and Sharma, 2017). Fish flour is a dried powder, prepared from dressed fish which is highly nutritious and contains high quality proteins with all essential amino acid, fatty acids and minerals (Monteiro et al., 2016) and can be likened to fish mince which have almost the same pattern of production and are both for the basis of human consumption.

Furthermore, fish flour can be used as part of complementary food for children older than six months of age since it is a good source of essential amino acids, minerals, vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids which will play a vital role in their physical and cognitive development. The fish flour can also be used as a food mixture for any age bracket as it is a good source of nutrient (Tacon and Forster, 2000).

            Fish mince is an edible fish flour in which the fish flesh is separated from the skin and bones. Separating methods may be mechanical using deboning machines or combined chemical and physical methods. The separated flesh could be processed into delicacy fish products such as fish fingers, fish cakes, fish sausage etc. Almost any type of fish could be processed into mince. The fillet is blended and mixed with other ingredients in a mixer (Tawari, 2006). Fish flour is a fish product like other fish products derived from fish processing, such as fish meal, fish canning, fish silage (Tawari, 2006).

Fish and fish by-products are highly perishable, due to their biological composition, which may affect their nutrient composition; however, it is known that biological composition and chemical stability depend on the fish species. It is also necessary to have data on the nutritional composition of fish powder in order to make the best use of them as food and to develop the technology for processing fish powder and other fish items (Lougovois and Kyrana, 2005).

Fish when out of water deteriorates fast except immediate steps are taken to preserve it. In other to prevent fish deterioration, every fish processor must strive to employ the best method possible in handing fish in other to maximize returns on processing investment (Davies, 2005). Dried fish (raw material of fish powder) is a rich source of nutrient, and the knowledge of nutritional composition of the fish powder is essential in order to compare its food value with other protein foods.

Fish is a food that contains high quality protein and essential amino acids in adequate quantities. Fish is an excellent source of lipid that contains omega-3 fatty acids, especially, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Kris- Etherton et al., 2002), vitamins such as D (cholecalciferol) and B2 (riboflavin). Fish is also a great source of minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, iron, zinc, iodine, magnesium, and potassium (Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2011).

Processing of fish into fish flour as a form or by product for human consumption or as a supplement in animal food has been neglected in fish culture practices. This may be due to the high technology required in some of the processes and the fact that those involved in actual fish production are ignorant of the different processing methods (Davies, 2005). The study is designed to produce fish flour from fish as well as to analyze the chemical composition and amino acid profiles.

            1.1              STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

More than 2 billion people are affected by micronutrient deficiency (World Health Organization (WHO), 2001) a condition often referred to as “hidden hunger.” Micronutrient deficiency is particularly prevalent in poor rural and urban areas where limited economic resources prevent diversity in diets. The most common micronutrient deficiencies are connected to low dietary intakes of vitamin A, iron, and iodine (Allen et al., 2006).

Micronutrient deficiency has been considered as a major risk factor for child survival in Nigeria, increasing the risk of death from common diseases such as acute gastroenteritis, pneumonia, and measles (Ekweagwu et al., 2008). The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in Nigerian children under 5 years of age was reported by the Nigerian Food Consumption Survey as, 23.3%, 34.0%, 13.0%, and 20.0% for Vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency anemia, Iodine deficiency disorder, and zinc deficiency disorders respectively (International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), 2004).

However, other more neglected micronutrient deficiencies are due to non-availability of selenium, zinc, and calcium in the diet which significantly affect the health of individuals (Hagan et al., 2010). It has been reported that zinc deficiency contributes to the death of 800,000 children globally per year, whereas rickets caused by calcium deficiency is gaining more attention than before (Hagan et al., 2010), Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency is also important.

Fish products are good sources of essential amino acid and micronutrients. According to United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund and World Health Organisation (UNICEF/WHO) (2017) statistics report have shown that children of under-five age are the most vulnerable group as a result of inadequate care and feeding practices from the respective parent and care-givers. However, the report of UNICEF/WHO (2017) shows that the prevalence rate of malnutrition among under-five children in Nigeria indicated that 31.5% were underweight (weight for age), 46.3% were stunted (height for age) and 10.8% were wasted (weight for height).

The risk of malnutrition can be reduced by educating care-givers and mothers on how to take good care of their infants and children, making them realize the relationship between health and food. Fish flour is a nutrient dense fish by-product which when added to infant and children’s diet, will improve their nutritional status as well as reduce the rate of protein energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies also known as ‘hidden hunger’ among under 5 children in our societies. The experiment is designed to produce fish flours and analyze their chemical composition and amino acid profiles.

            1.2              OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The general objective of this study is to determine the amino acid profile and chemical composition of fish flour obtained from catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), croaker (Micropogonias undulatus) and mackerel (Tranchurus symmetricus).The specific objectives include to:

1.      Formulate fish flours from the three fish species.

2.      Analyze the amino acid profile of the formulated fish flours.

3.      Analyze the chemical composition of the formulated fish flours.

4.      Compare the amino acid profile and chemical composition of the formulated fish flours.

            1.3              SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Firstly, the study will improve the knowledge of people and be of great importance as it will increase the awareness about the use of fish flour as part of recipe in diet formulation and preparation. It will also be useful because it will provide insight about the nutritional benefit of fish flour in diet as it improves its nutrient content, the balanced amino acids composition of fish flour complements and provide synergistic effect with other animal and vegetable protein in diet to promote fast growth and reduced feeding cost in the societies.

Secondly, the result of the study will be useful to food and nutrition professionals, Pediatricians as part of food items to be use in the preparation of therapeutic diet such as fortified pap, high energy mix (Hemix) for stabilization and rehabilitation of malnourished infant and children in the society. The result will also be used by nutrition advocators to influence policy and decision makers for the better production and utilization of fish flour as it will be easily accessible by both the poor and the affluent.


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