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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007741

No of Pages: 75

No of Chapters: 1-5

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This research embodies analysis of using Crushed Palm Kernel Shells (CPKS) as partial replacement for fine aggregate in concrete. The research is aimed at determining the relevant concrete properties and to reduce the weight of concrete in high rising structures that fall in normal concrete envelope. Various percentages replacement of fine aggregates of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%, respectively of CPKS concrete were tested for 1:3:6, 1:2:4 and 1:1:3 concrete mix ratios. Concrete samples with no CPKS (0% replacement) served as the control experiment. The batching was by weight. Palm kennel Shells were crushed to river size of 4.75mm (No 4) sieve and then incorporated into the concrete. Ninety-six (96) concrete cubes of each concrete mix ratios, measuring 150mm x 150mm x 150mm, were tested for the compressive strength at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days respectively. The research revealed that the CPKS acted as a retarder in the concrete because of its nature of consolidation. Water cement ratio increased with the increase in the percentage of the CPKS. The nominal mixes of 1:3:6, 1:2:4 and 1:3:6 at 28 days curing with 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% partial replacement of fine aggregate yielded average compressive strengths in N/mm2 of  20.88, 20.21, 19.35, 18.36, 17.32, 16.49;  25.08, 24.41, 23.47, 22.65, 21.28, 20.25 and 26.93, 26.42, 25.51, 24.42, 23.76, 22.69 respectively.



Title page                                                                                                                    i

Declaration                                                                                                                  ii

Certification                                                                                                                iii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                                    v

Table of Content                                                                                                         vi

List of Tables                                                                                                              ix

List of Figures                                                                                                             x

Abstract                                                                                                                     xi


CHAPTER 1:                        INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background of Study                                                                                                 1

1.2       Statement of Problem                                                                                     3

1.3       Aims and Objectives                                                                                       3

1.4       Scope of Study                                                                                               4

1.5       Significance of Study                                                                                                 4

CHAPTER 2:                        LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1       Definition                                                                                                        5

2.2      Cement                                                                                                             6

2.2.1   Ordinary Portland Cement (O.P.C)                                                                 7

2.2.2    Modified Portland Cements (M.P.C)                                                                         7

2.2.3    High-Alumina Cement (H.A.C)                                                                     7

2.3       Aggregates                                                                                                      8

2.3.1    Fine aggregates                                                                                               8

2.3.2    Coarse aggregates                                                                                           9

2.4       Water                                                                                                              9

2.5       Concrete                                                                                                          10

2.6       Properties of Concrete                                                                                    10

2.7       Quality Control                                                                                               11

2.8       Concrete Mix Design                                                                                      11

2.8.1   Method of mix design of concrete                                                                 12  Road note No.4 method                                                                                12  Doe method of concrete design                                                                     12  Mix design for pump able concrete                                                               12  Rapid method                                                                                                13



CHAPTER 3:                        MATERIALS AND METHODS

3.1       Cement Used                                                                                                  14

3.2       Aggregate Used                                                                                              15

3.2.1    Fine aggregate                                                                                                 15

3.2.2    Coarse aggregate                                                                                             15


3.3       Water Used                                                                                                     15

3.4       Palm Kernel Shell Used                                                                                  15

3.5       Experimental Work                                                                                         15

3.5.1    Workability test                                                                                              15

3.6       Cost Estimation                                                                                              16

3.7       Equipment Used                                                                                             16

3.8       Sample Collection                                                                                           18

3.9       Material Characteristics and Classification                                                     18

3.10     Method and Experimental Procedures                                                           18

3.10.1 Specific gravity test                                                                                        18

3.10.2   Aggregate impact test                                                                                    18

3.10.3 Particle size distribution test                                                       20

3.10.4 Concrete cubes                                                                                                20

3.10.5  Slump test                                                                                                       21

3.10.6  Compressive strength of concrete test                                                            22

3.10.7  Concrete cubes                                                                                                22


4.1       Result of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Aggregates                        23

4.1.1    Result of compressive strength                                                                       23

4.2       Discussions                                                                                                     24

4.2.1    Effect of percentage replacement of fine aggregates (sand) with

            crushed palm kernel shells (CPKS)                                                                 24




5.1       Conclusion                                                                                                      31

5.2       Recommendations                                                                                          32                   







3.1:      British Soil Classification System                                                                   17

3.2:      Showing Properties of Aggregates and Cement                                             22

3.3:      Classification of Aggregate based on Aggregate impact value                      19

4.1:      Physical and Mechanical properties of aggregates                                         23

4.2:      Slump Test Results                                                                                         25

4.3:      Variation of Unit Weight of Hardened Concrete (average)                           26











3.1:                  British Soil Classification System                                                                         16

3.2:                  Compressive Test Specimen                                                               22

4.1:                  Unit weight(KN/m3)with CPKS as partial replacement         

for fine aggregate for mix 1:3:6, 1:2:4 and 1:1:3                            26

4.2:                  Unit weight (KN/m3) with CPKS as partial replacement

for fine aggregate for mix 1:3:6                                                          27

4.3:                  Unit weight (KN/m3) with CPKS as partial replacement

for fine aggregate for mix 1:2:4                                                          27

4.4:                  Unit weight (KN/m3) with CPKS as partial replacement

for fine aggregate for mix 1:1:3                                                       28

4.5:                  Slump (mm) with CPKS as partial replacement for

fine aggregate for mix 1:3:6                                                                28

4.6:                  Slump (mm) with CPKS as partial replacement for

fine aggregate for mix 1:2:4                                                                29

4.7:                  Slump (mm) with CPKS as partial replacement for fine

aggregate for mix 1:1:3                                                                    29

4.8:                  Slump (mm) with CPKS as partial replacement for fine

aggregate for mix 1:3:6, 1:2:4 and 1:1:3                                          30









Before now, series of arguments have been made about suitability of in-situ power of concrete by all stakeholders; clients, contractors and consultants. Laboratory dice test may not be consistent enough to stop the disagreement. There are no standard correlation curves for concrete compressive strength, suitability and effectiveness of crushed palm kernel shell (CPKS) as half additional of fine aggregate in concrete properties in the building construction codes.

In earlier years, the Romans established the durability of lightweight concrete by using natural aggregates from volcanic deposits. After the advancement of Portland cement in the early 1800s, it took the discovery and development of manufactured lightweight aggregates in the early 1990s to bring structural lightweight concrete to full maturity. The focal ordinary lightweight aggregates are diatomite, pumice, volcanic cinders (Neville and Brooks, 2008).

The effect of Burnt and Crushed Cow Bones (BCCB) as half additional for sand in concrete was investigated (Ogarekpe et al., 2017). The investigation exposed that the BCCB operated as a retarder in the concrete. Water cement ratio increased with the rise in the percentage of the BCCB resulting in the reduction of the workability of concrete.

The percentages of replacement of fine aggregates were 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%, correspondingly of BCCB in consideration of 1:2:4 and 1:1:3 concrete mix relations which produced average compressive strengths in N/mm2 stretching from 16.49-24.29 and 18.71-29.73, respectively. This indicates that the compressive strength of concrete (CSC) reduces as % BCCB increases. The compressive strength generally increases with increase in age of curing.

A comparison of the compressive strengths for concrete mix ratio of 1:2:4 and 1:1:3 showed that the later mix ratio yielded higher compressive strengths. The minimum and maximum CSC at 50% BCCB content for 1:2:4 concrete mix ratios at 28days curing age were 15.67N/mm2 and 17.67N/mm2 respectively. Similarly, the minimum and maximum CSC at 50% BCCB content for 1:1:3 concrete combination relations at 28days curing age were 17.78 N/mm2 and 19.29N/mm2 respectively. Further mix ratios of 1:2:4 and 1:1:3 at 28days curing age, was observed that increase in the BCCB content beyond 40 and 50%, respectively resulted to the reduction of the average compressive strength below 17N/mm2, which is the recommended minimum strength for use of concrete in structural works (Ogarekpe et al., 2017).

Mohammed et al. (2014) experimented on CPKS as half additional of sand in asphalt concrete. He observed that sand is heavier than the CPKS. The grain size circulation arcs for the sand and CPKS distinguishing arcs are usual of those of identical sands and are verified by their equality constants of 2.08 and 2.0 for sand and CPKS respectively. The plot of the Marshall stability against the mix proportions indicate that as the percentage replacement of the fine (sand) increases, the stability value decreases. This is expected since the replacement of the sand with CPCS is expected to have an overall reducing effect on the density of the asphaltic concrete. The initial study presented that additional of sand with CPKS is capable of informing definitely on some properties of asphaltic concrete.



There is the need to assess the potential and structural performance of using CPKS that can be seen as water in developing economies as partial replacement for fine aggregate in   concrete properties as:

v  Concrete is expensive and therefore, there is need to explore low-cost options. Also, there is the need for the conversion of waste-to-wealth, hence, resulting to a fresh and green location with minimal waste.

v  Use of CPKS helps in creating voids, hence curing the concrete ta lightweight and pervious materials for special concrete. 


The aim of this study is to characterize and estimate the cost of using crushed palm kernel shells in a building construction.

The specific research objectives of the study are to:

        i.            Characterize CPKS as a supplementary of fine (sand) aggregate for mortar and concrete properties.

      ii.            Determine the optimum quantity of CPKS in a given concrete mix.

    iii.            To assess the mechanical properties of CPKS in both fresh and hardened state.

    iv.            To ascertain the durability of concrete produced with CPKS.

      v.            To figure out the cost saving estimate of using CPKS to replace part of sand in building construction.

1.4       SCOPE OF STUDY

The research is centered on the determination of the suitability and effectiveness of CPKS as partial replacement of fine (sand) aggregate in concrete and cost estimate of how much to be saved when CPKS is used in substituting part of sand in a building construction. The study also covers concrete of mixes 1:3:6, 1:2:4 and 1:1:3 sand and CPKS of deferent percentages as half additional of sand. The experiments were done in the concrete/strength of material laboratory (workshop 5) of civil engineering department, Cross River University of Technology (CRUTECH), Calabar Campus.


The study is significant in understanding and predicting the strength, workability and                                           characteristics of CPKS. It aims at providing an insight into providing a substitute to the existing conventional strength of concrete, it serve as reference document as regards to the strength of concrete and provide a quicker means of excellence control of concrete, thus saving time and money.

In a developed republic like Nigeria, concrete structures are fast erupting; therefore, the importance of this study cannot be overemphasized. The amount that can be saved when CPKS is adopted to substitute part of sand in the construction of buildings was also determined.


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