This study produced
bio-lubricant with palm kernel oil and compared its quality with Tonimas Oil (
A commercial lubricating oil in the market). Palm kernel oil based lubricant
was produced by dissolving 12.5ml of Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphate and 47.5ml of Ethylene propylene into 400ml of
PKO and stiring them together to achieve a homogeneous mixture. The quality of
the lubricant produced was compared with Tonimas oil using the following
parameter; kinematic viscosity at 40oc and 100oc,
specific gravity at 15oc and flash point. Result of the tests
carried out showed that the PKO based oil has KV at 100oc and 40
oc of 11.6cst and 128.00cst respectively, Specific Gravity at 15 oc
of 0.8817 and flash point of 242 oc while Tonimas Oil has KV at 100
oc and 40oc of 12.06cst and 131.00cst respectively, Specific
Gravity at 15 oc of 0.8985 and flash point of 262 oc.
Comparison with Tonimas Oil showed that Tonimas Oil has better properties,
However the tested quality parameters of the PKO based oil lie within the
acceptable standard for lubricating oils by ISO.
of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objective of the Study 6
1.4 Significance of the Study 6
1.5 Scope of the Study 7
2.0 Literature Review 8
2.1 Bio-lubricants and the Environment 8
2.2 Sources of Oils 9
2.3 Oil formation in seeds 10
2.4 Types of oils 11
2.5 General description of palm kernel oil. 13
2.6 Palm kernel seed oil productions 15
2.7 Uses of palm kernel oil 16
2.8 General addictive used in lubricant 18
2.9 Types of addictives 20
2.10 Motor oil 23
3.0 Materials and Methods 28
3.1 List of Materials and Reagents needed 28
Collection of the Sample 29
3.3 Production of lubricant oil using palm kernel
3.4 Determination of Kinematic Viscosity @40oc 30
3.5 Determination of Kinematic Viscosity @100oc 30
3.6 Determination of flash point 31
Determination of specific Gravity 32
4.0 Results 34
and Conclusion 35
5.1 Discussion 35
5.2 Conclusion 36
5.3 Recommendation 36
1.1 Background of the Study
fuels are formed by natural process such as Anaerobic decomposition of buried
dead organisms. The age of the organisms and their resulting fossils is
typically millions of years and sometimes exceeds 650 million years (Tulsa and
Fossil fuels are non-renewable resource
because they take millions of years to form and reserves are being depleted
much faster than are being made. Fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal, natural
gas and synthetic gas, which have been used to meet the energy needs of man,
are associated with negative environmental impacts such as global warming
(Munack, Schroder, Karh And Bunger 2001).
Besides, supply of this non-renewable
energy resources is threatening to run out in a foreseeable future. More so,
the use of fossil fuels contributes in the emission of green house gas,
combustion of fossils also produce air pollutants such as Nitrogen oxides.
Before now fossil fuel has been a raw material for producing lubricants and
material like petroleum, diesel and graphite. Having seen all the negative
environmental impact of fossil fuels, search for renewable energy resource and
sources for energy and other application, like lubricants continuous to attract
Lubricant is a substance capable of
reducing friction by making surfaces smooth or slippery. Renewable energy
resources like vegetable oils have been used to produce lubricants which are
known as bio-lubricants. Bio-lubricants are prepared because they are
biodegradable, non-toxic cheaper and have renewable resources unlike
conventional mineral-base oils (Bandles and Bjorklund, 1992).
Bio-lubricants formulated from plants
oils have the following advantages derived from the chemistry of the bases
lubricity leading to lower friction losses.
volatility resulting in decreased exhaust emissions.
oil as a bio-lubricant has very low volatility due to the higher molecular
weight of the triglyceride molecule. They have different unique properties
compared to mineral oils, due to their unique chemical structure. Vegetable
oils have a greater ability to lubricate and higher viscosity index. Superior
anticorrosive properties are observed in vegetable oil and are induced by
greater affinity for metal surface. High flash point over 300oc
classify vegetable oils as non-flammable liquids.
However, the applicability of vegetable
oils in lubrication is partly limited as this oil tends to show low oxidative
stability and higher melting points. Production of vegetable oils is an
attractive way of solving these problems (Meier, Mertzger and Schubert 2007)
vegetable oil include groundnut oil, palm kernel oil, castor oil, palm oil,
coconut oil etc.
Palm kernel oil (one of the vegetable
oils) is an edible plant oil, from kernel seed (Elaesis guineensis), (Kwasi,
Stein and Bunger, 2003).
Bio-lubricant are biodegradable,
renewable, have higher viscosity and greater affinity for metal surface thereby
lubricating the surface better. Palm kernel oil is composed of fatty acids
esterified with glycerol just like any ordinary fat, it is high in saturated
about 80% (Faessler, Peter and Less 2007).
of the Research Problem
present the base oil for most lubricating sold in the market are obtained from
petroleum which takes millions of years to form despite the fact that it is
continuously being explored. This non renewable form of the major raw material
for the production of lubricating oil necessitates research for renewable alternatives.
Again lubricating oil from petroleum is not biodegradable and renders farmlands
useless as it militates against the growth of growth of weeds and grasses let
alone farm crops. This research is therefore geared towards producing a
lubricant from a renewable source which will be more environmentally friendly
and at the same time have acceptable quality.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The aim of this study is as follows;
To produce lubricant from palm kernel
To determine the quality parameters of
the lubricant namely; flash point, viscosity at 40oc and 100oc
and specific gravity
To compare the quality of the lubricant
produced with that of a commercial lubricant (TONIMAS Lubricant)
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study will be beneficial in the following
The drivers will benefit from this work,
in the sense that it will help to prolong the life span of the their vehicles.
work will be beneficial to the general public as it produced a bio-degradable
and environmental friendly lubricant.
1.5 Scope of the Study
This study is limited to the following
Production of lubricant from palm kernel
Comparative analysis of palm kernel
lubricant and Tonimas lubricant.
Carryout full analysis of Palm kernel oil,
viscosity, flash point and specific gravity.
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