study assess lubricant Oil Discharge on Soil Properties in mechanic village. It
spans through the effects on soil properties, effects on water bodies, effects
on human and other living organisms, effects on the environment, general
hazards caused by this activity on the soil and ways of prevention and
treatment, and such activities that affect the soil properties has been
identified as indiscriminate disposal of spent oil on the soil which has led to
the disruption to plants and animals life. The study has also suggested ways of
reducing these contaminants by recycling of the spent engine oil before discarding
them into the soil and government setting up strict rules and regulations
regarding the issue.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - vii
Introduction - - - - - - - - 1
Review/Conceptual Framework - - 2
2.1 Effect of Spent (Used) Engine oil
in a Mechanic Workshop 4
Effect of Indiscriminate Disposal of Spent Engine Oil - 6
General Hazard and Toxicity - - - - 12
Additives in Lubricant oil and its Oxidant mechanism - 14
2.4 Composition of used engine oil - - - - - 15
2.5 Assessing the Workshop Risk - - - - - 18
Contaminant in Spent Engine Oil - - - - 20
Recycling of Spent Engine Oil and its Processes - - 20
Proper Storage for Recycling - - - - - 22
Benefit of Recycling - - - - - - 22
Treatment and Disposal of Residual Hazardous Waste after Recycling of Spent
Engine Oil. - - - - - - 22
Prevention of Spent Engine Oil Pollution - - - 23
Need for Regulation and Legislation in Controlling Spent Engine Oil - - - - - - - - - - 24
3.1 Conclusion - - - - 25
Recommendation - - - - - - - 25
The word or term Spent
(Used) Engine oil refers to any lubricant that has served it main purpose in
vehicles, tricycles, motorcycles, and generator etc and has been withdrawn out
from its area of application therefore considering it not fit again in the
vehicle until maybe recycle/treated in others words, it is obtained after
servicing of cars, generator, trucks etc (Agbogidi, 2011). The is because
during its use the oil comes in contact with metal particle dirt, water and
other impurities which contaminate it. Because of this reason, and also the
fact that oil may contain other additive such as rust inhibitors and
stabilizers, it is classified as a hazardous material and must be handled like
one (Agbogidi and Egbuchua, 2010).
These spent (Used) engine oil contains a
lot of different kind of toxic substances which causes detrimental effects on
the soil and the ecosystem at large. The used engine oil when present in the
soil create an unsatisfactory condition for life in the soil properties this is
due to the poor aeration of the contaminated soil moreover this could inturn affect
the growth, yield and general performance of plants in the area of
contamination (Atuanya, 1987).
However, proper treatment of this used
oil should is highly recommended or enforced for individual or cooperate bodies
of artisans that owns a workshop before it is discarded into the environment because
the environment support living and non-living.
LITERATURE REVIEW/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Pollution from spent engine oil is one
of the most serious environmental problems in most part of the country and the
world at large especially in developing nations like Nigeria where it is even
more widespread than crude oil spillage and pollution due to improper disposal
methods. These spent engines oil are often obtained during servicing and
subsequently draining from automobile and generators engine. Nigeria alone
account for more than 87 million litres of spent lubricant annually (Nwankwo
and Fedi, 1988; NDES, 1999). Adequate attention has not been given to it’s
proper disposal (NDES, 1999).
The soil is the part of the earth which
supports animals and microbial life and thus owes nutritional duties to them
(Baker, 1970). Oil spillage in agricultural lands and other ecosystems are widely
reported (Bazbaruah et al 1994). When the soil is polluted by oil, the effect
range from blanketing of the soil to the displacement of pore space in the soil
this modifies the rate of gaseous exchange and destroys soil texture (Bazbaruah
at al, 1994). And also used engine oil has been indicated in certain
physiological and morphological aberrations in plant (Amundu and Omole 1993).
This is due to it’s phyto-toxic effect on plants, causing severe injuries
leading to the yellowing and shedding of leaves and even delaying fruit
maturation (Atuanya 1987)
Abioye et al (2012) reported that used
engine oil disposal can be more environmentally damaging than crude oil
pollution. This is because of the additives and contaminants that are present
in the used oil, and this can or may cause both short and long term effect if
they are allowed to enter the environment through water ways or soil (Anoliefe and
Vwioko, 2001). Crude oil and used engine oil penetrates and accumulate in
plants thus causing damaging to cell membrane and leakages of cell content, and
this also makes soil properties unsatisfactorily for plants growth (Cut forth
et al; 1985).
Agbogidi (2011) also reported that
spent engine oil is the commonest soil contaminant in the rural areas of
Nigeria where Agriculture and Farming forms the main stay of the rural
inhabitant. These used oil contains toxic material inducing heavy metals that
could affect growth, yield and general performance of plant (Agbogidi and Enbuchua,2010).
Spent engine oil is a common and toxic environmental contaminant which is not
naturally found in the environment (Dominguez-Rosado and Pichtel, 2004). In addition,
the spent engine oil is also released into the environment from the exhaust
system during engine use and due to engine leaks (Anoliefo and Edegbai, 2000, Anoliefo
and Vwioko, 2003) Another study shows that there is contamination of soil by
used lubricating oil and is rapidly increasing due to global increment in the
usage of petroleum product (Mandri and Lin, 2007).
Environmental pollution with petro-chemical products
and petroleum products has attracted much attention in recent decades and also
the presence of different types of automobiles and machinery has resulted in an
increase in the use of lubricating oil. And the spillage of these used oil or
pouring it on purpose, contaminate our natural environment with hydrocarbon (Husain
et. al., 2008). However, a prolong
exposure of used oil on the soil can cause various hazard to the living and
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