An experiment was carried out for one season
(2007) in the Experimental Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture at Shambat to
investigate the response of Groundnut (Arachis
hypogaea L.) to phosphorus and organic fertilization under irrigation.
comprised two types of organic manures: farmyard manure (FYM) and chicken
manure (CHM) at rate of (0, 10 tons/ha), two phosphorus levels (0, 50kg
P2O5/ha) in form of triple super phosphate (48% P2O5) and three times of
application for Organic manures two months and one month before sowing and at
sowing. Phosphorus was applied at sowing.
The design was Factorial Split-Plot
design with four replications. The organic manure treatments were assigned to
the main plots and phosphorus and its combinations treatments to the sub-plots.
Parameters studied included: vegetative parameters (number of nodules/plant,
nodules dry weight/plant, shoot and root dry weight/plant and number of
branches/plant), reproductive parameters (days to 50% flowering and number of
flowers/plant), yield and yield components (plant density, number of pod/plant,
pod set(%), weight of pods/plant, shelling(%), pod yield(t/ha),hay yield(t/ha),
and harvest index), and chemical composition (seed oil, protein and phosphorus
Results showed that application of
organic manures significantly increased number and weight of nodules/plant,
shoot dry weight, oil, protein and phosphorus contents, while organic manures
insignificantly increased root dry weight, number of branches/plant, days to50%
flowering, number of flowers/plant, and yield and yield components. Also
results showed that application of P significantly increased hay yield, protein
and phosphorus contents. Phosphorus also insignificantly increased number and
weight of nodules/plant, shoot and root dry weight, number of branches/plant,
days to 50% flowering, number of flowers/plant, yield and yield components, and
oil content. In addition, there were significant effects of the interaction
between P and organic manures on seed oil, protein and phosphorus
Response of Groundnut to inorganic fertilizers:
3.1.1 Number and weight of nodules/plant:-
3.1.2 Number of branches/plant:-
3.1.3 Shoot and root dry weight:-
3.2.1 Days to 50% flowering:-
3.2.2 Number of flowers/plant:-
3.3 Yield and yield components:
3.3.1 Plant density:-
3.3.2 Number of pods/plant:-
3.3.3 Pod set%:-
3.3.4 Weight of pods/plant:-
3.3.5 Pod yield/ha:-
3.3.6 Shelling percentage:-
3.3.7 Hay yield/ha:-
3.3.8 Harvest index:-
3.5 Statistical analysis:-
4.1 Vegetative parameters:
4.1.1 Number of nodules per plant:-
4.1.2 Nodules dry weight:-
4.1.3 Shoot dry weight
4.1 4 Root dry weight per
4.1.5 Number of branches
4.2 Reproductive parameters:
4.2.1 The days to 50% flowering:-
4.2.2 Number of flowers per plant:-
4.3 Yield and yield components parameters:
4.3.1 Plant density:-
4.3.2 Number of pods per plant:-
4.3.3 Pod set percentage:-
4.3.4 Weight of pods per plant:-
4.3.5 Pod yield per
4.3.7 Hay yield per hectare:-
4.3.8 Harvest index:-
4.4 Chemical analysis:
4.4.1 Seed oil content (%)
4.4.2 Seed protein content (%)
4.4.3 Seed phosphorus content (%)
5.1 Nodulation and Vegetative
5.2 Reproductive Growth:
5.3 Yield and Yield
5.4 Seed Chemical Composition:
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
Determination of total seed oil
Determination of total seed protein
Determination of total seed phosphorus
Groundnut or peanut (Arachis
hypogaea L.) also named monkeynut and earth nut, is a member of the family
Leguminosae, sub family Papilionaceae and is a native of South America (Brazil
or Peru). It was brought to Africa and Middle East by early travelers from its
Groundnut is one of the most wide spread and important food
legumes in the world and the third largest source of edible oil after soybean
and sunflower. The seed contains 42-55% edible non-drying oil, 25-32% protein,
and appreciable quantities of phosphorous, calcium and vitamins.
The groundnut oil is used as table oil and for the
manufacture of soap, margarine and other products such as sweets and butter.
The shell may be used as manure, animal feed, a source of energy and raw
material source for many products (Vankatanarayana, 1952).
Groundnut hay contains about 7% protein and thus it is a
valuable animal feed. The total annual world production amounts to about 25
million tons of unshelled nuts, 70% of which is contributed by India, China and
U.S.A (Khidir, 1997). The main producing countries are India, Chaina, U.S.A.,
Sudan, and Indonesia, and in Africa Sudan, Senegal, Nigeria (FAO, 1998).
In the Sudan, groundnut is one of the main cash crops; it
plays an important role in the economy of the Sudan (MANR, 1985). It is
produced by two production systems (Khidir, 1997). In the rainfed sector, the
crop is grown in small holdings on sandy soils of low fertility, mostly under
low and erratic rainfall, where the early maturing Spanish types (Barberton and
Sodari) used to dominate the area. In the irrigated sector, groundnut is
produced on heavy black cracking clay of central Sudan, where only
late-maturing Virginia types (Ashford, MH383, Medani, and Kiriz) are grown.
The main areas of production in the rainfed sector include
South Darfur, South Kordofan, North Kordofan and Southern region (Equatoria),
while the main areas of production in the irrigated sector include Gezira
scheme, Rahad scheme, New Halfa scheme, Suki scheme, Blue and white Nile
Under irrigated conditions, the average yield ranges between
1.5 and 2.5 tons/ha whereas the yield under rainfed conditions ranges between
0.2 and 0.8tons/ha (Maragan, 1996).
Research work on groundnut in the Sudan covers some aspects
such as weed control (Ishag, 1971), plant population (Ibrahim, 1976), nitrogen
and phosphorous fertilizers application (Nur and Gasim, 1974; Mohammed, 1980),
and the effect of sulphur application (Salama, 1983; Hago and Salama, 1987;
Hago and Salama, 1987). However, there is still a paucity of information in the
area of groundnut nutrition, particularly organic manuring.
So, the main objective of this work was to study the response
of groundnut to phosphorous and organic fertilization under irrigation.
1. Response of Groundnut to inorganic
Information about groundnut nutritional requirement are
rather conflicting. While some researches reported the crop to be soil
exhausting, others stated that it rarely requires fertilizer N since it fixes
N. Moreover, groundnut is reported to utilize fertilizer residues from
preceding crops (Sinha, 1991).
El Tahir (1997) showed that application of both nitrogen and
phosphorous significantly increased number and weight of nodules per plant,
number of branches, shoot dry weight per plant, protein content and phosphorous
Collins et al.,
(1986) observed that addition of phosphorus and sulphur increased nodule number
on the sandy soil but not on the silt loam soil.
El Tahir (1997) showed that application of P did not
significantly increase hay yield, number of flowers, seed oil and seed sulphur
Chapman and Carter (1975) reported that groundnut removes
relatively large amounts of certain nutrients from the soil. However, like
other legumes it can fix atmospheric nitrogen and therefore nitrogen
fertilization is rarely required.
Chapman and Carter (1975) observed that a proper balance of
phosphorus and nitrogen are essential for early maturity. However if the
preceding crop before groundnut is well-fertilized, there will be no need to
apply N, P or K.
Application of phosphorous significantly increased plant
height, kernels/plant, dry weight per plant and shelling percentage. However,
effect on number of branches/plant and 100-kernal weight was not significant.
Phosphorus element is an essential nutrient for crop growth and high yield with
good quality. In this aspect, Nasr-Alla, et
al., (1998) reported that increasing the rate of PK as single or in
combined application increased number of branches/plant, yield of pods/plant
and yield of pods/fed of groundnut.
Sinha (1970) observed that placement of super phosphate
either in contact or 3-5cm below the seed was equally effective and
significantly superior to broad cast application in the uptake of fertilizer
phosphorus, but not in the dry matter weight or total phosphorus content of the
In research stations as well as in trials on farmers fields,
20-60kg P2O5/ha has been found remunerative for oil seeds
under a variety of conditions (Kulkarni, et
al., 1986). In some situations, either no or little response of groundnut
to P has been observed. Mukherjee, et al.,
(1991) observed that crops and P level had significant interaction on yield and
yield components. Gobarah, et al.,
(2006) showed that increasing rate of phosphorus fertilizer from 30 to 60 kg P2O5/fed
significantly increased vegetative growth, yield and its components as well as
seed quality i.e. protein content and NPK percentages, while oil percentage did
not reach the level of significance by increasing the P rate.
Ali and Mowafy, (2003) found that adding phosphorous
fertilizer caused significant increase in seed yield and all its attributes.
ElHabbasha, et al., (2005) reported
that increasing phosphorus levels increased shoot dry weight, number of pods
and seeds/plant , weight of pods and seeds/plant, 100-seed weight, seed and oil
yields, oil percentage, seed protein content as well as NPK contents of
groundnut. Correlation of available P with pod yield and nutrient uptake
indicated that sub soil fertility made an important contribution to nutrient
uptake by groundnut (Patil and Patel, 1985). Viarmant and Dhalinal (1970)
reported that P uptake by groundnut was mainly from the upper 40cm of the soil
and was high from flowering to the peg stage.
Devarajan and Kethan daraman (1982) observed that the highest
pod yield of groundnut was obtained by adding 60kg P2O5
and 90 kg K2O/ha. El-far and Ramadan (2000) indicated that
application of 46.6 kg P2O5 and 36kg K2O/fed
gave the highest effect on yield and its attributes. Tomar, et al., (1990) observed significant
increase in pod yield in groundnut with application of 40 Kg P2O5/ha,
when rainfall was well distributed.
Kulkorni, et al.,
(1986) stated that application of 50kg P2O5/ha increased
the number and weight of nodules, N content, dry matter accumulation and pod
yield of groundnut.
Budhar, et al.,
(1986) reported that response of irrigated groundnut to application of P in the
range of 0-120kg P2O5/ha depended on soil P content.
Kumar and Ras (1990) observed that P application increased
pod yield from 2.53 t/ha (control) to 7.94 t/ha; but there were no
statistically significant differences in yield between P application rates.
Dubey, et al.,
(1991) observed that application of P increased N, P, K, Ca and Mg content but
decreased S content in seeds.
2. Response of Groundnut to Organic
The nutrient composition of poultry manures vary with type of
birds, the feed ration, the proportion of litter to droppings, the type of
litter, and the manure handling system.
Poultry manure is an excellent source of nutrient and can be
incorporated into most fertilizer programs. Nitrogen in poultry wastes comes
from uric acid, ammonium salts, and organic matter (Zublena, 1993). Maximum
nutrient benefit from manure is achieved when incorporated into the soil
immediately. Incorporation minimized nitrogen losses into the air and/or in
runoff and allows soil microorganisms to start decomposing the organic matter
in the manure.
To minimize nitrogen losses manure should be applied as near
as possible to planting time or to the crop growth stage during which nitrogen
is most needed.
For coarse textured soil, manure should be applied frequently
and at low rate throughout the growing season, because such soils have higher
water infiltration rate and a low ability to hold nutrients, unused nitrogen
can therefore be lost by leaching (Barker, 1997).
Chicken litter contains a considerable amount of organic matter
and hence it has an impact on soil pH and liming due to varying amounts of
calcium carbonate in poultry feed (Mallins, et
Mohamed (2002) reported that chicken manure significantly
increased nodule dry weight, shoot dry weight, shoot nitrogen content and yield
of inoculated soybean.
According to Elamin (1991), chicken manure, farmyard manure
and green manure whether leguminous or non leguminous are utilized extensively
Farmyard manure should be applied before sowing at a rate of
2030 tons per hectare (Rounanet, 1987). Sharma and Sharma (1988) reported that
organic manure has important functions in meeting fertilizer needs of crops.
Abu Suwar, (1981) reported that the addition of farmyard
manure resulted in a significantly higher fresh and dry matter of sorghum
forage compared to the control.
Cooke (1982) reported that in general 25t/ha of farmyard
manure added to first crop about 40kg N, 20kg P and 80kg K/ha. Reuranet, (1987)
stated that a ton of farmyard manure provides an average of 6kg of potassium,
5kg of nitrogen and lime, 3kg of phosphoric acid, 2kg of magnesium, and 0.5 kg
The other role of organic manure besides improving soil
fertility is the improvement of soil structure by changing the physical properties
of the soil.
Parsad and Singh, (1980) reported that continuous use of
farmyard manure and N, P, and K fertilizers for twenty years improved the
physical properties of sodic loam soils.
Kobayshi and Nagatomo, (1983) found that application of 0,
20, 50 or 100 tons FYM/ha on a cultivar of maize resulted in adding plenty of
moisture to the crop. However, manure did not affect leaf number/stem, leaf
sheath length, blade length or internode length, but increased leaf blade
width, internode diameter, plant height and plant fresh weight. They also found
that yield varied with year and in some years yield increased with increasing
rate of farmyard manure.
Gupta, et al.,
(1983) found that the application of farmyard manure combined with urea
increased moisture retention characteristics and decreased bulk density of the
soil and gave higher straw yield compared to farmyard manure alone.
The application of farmyard
manure alone or in combination with urea to salty soils increased forage dry
and fresh yield and improved forage quality (Abu Suwar, 1994).
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