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Product Code: 00007983

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This research work was aimed at investigating the phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of ethanol and water extract of leaf and seed of C. papaya. The ethanol extract of the plant parts generated  more phytochemical constituents than the aqueous extract. The four test organisms were obtained from already made stock culture plate. The inoculation was done using streak plate method. The extract of C. papaya parts recorded various degrees of antimicrobial efficacy against the test organisms using ethanol and water as extraction solvents. The highest in-vitro antimicrobial activity was observed by the ethanol leaf extract (16.5 mm) on S. aureus and P. aeruginosa at 200 mg/ml respectively. C. albican recorded the lowest zone of inhibition (13.0 mm). The leaf water extract recorded the highest potency on S. aureus and E. coli at 200mg/ml. the result of the seeds ethanol extract did not record any activity against S. aureus and E.coli (00 mg) while P.aeruginosa and C. albican recorded (12 mm and 15mm ) respectively. The same result was obtained on seed water extract on the test organisms. The result of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of water and ethanol extract on the seed and leaf showed various degrees of inhibition. The results from this research work has shown that the ethanol water extract of the seed and leaf of C. papaya particularly the leaf have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity, hence, can serve as a good antimicrobial agent against test the organisms. The results obtained were discussed in line with current research.











Table of contents

Title page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgements iv

Abstract v

Table of contents vi

List of Tables viii


1.0 Introduction 1

1.1 Aims and objectives 4


2.0 Literature review 5

2.1 Historical background of medicinal plant 5

2.2 Plant with their medicinal uses 6

2.3 Growth morphology and habitat of carica papaya 7

2.4 Indigenous uses and chemical properties of carica papaya 8

2.5 Active chemical constituent of medicine action of plant 11

2.6 Growth, morphology and habitat of carica papaya 14

2.7 Biology and pathogenicity of test organisms 14


3.0 Materials and methods 18

3.1 Materials 18

3.2 Methods 18

 3.3 Sterilization practices 18

3.4 Collection of plant materials 19

3.5 Preparation of extracts 19

3.6 Preparation of ethanolic leaf extract of c. Papaya 19

3.7 Aqueous extract preparation 20

3.8 Preparation of different concentration of extract 20

3.9 Preparation of paper disc 20

3.1.1 Determination of the asorptive capacity of the disc 21

3.1.2 Media preparation 21

3.3.3 Determination of antimicrobial activity 22

3.3.4 Determination of minimum inhibitory concentration 22

3.3.5 Phytochemical analysis 23


4.0 Results 25

4.1 Effect of percentage yield of plant extract 25


5.0 Discussion 38

5.1 Conclusion 39

5.2 Recommendation 39






List of tables

Table Title Pages

Percentage yield of the crude extract of C. Papaya (seeds and leaves) 29

Phytochemical analysis of seed extract of C. Papaya in 95% ethanol

and water 30

Phytochemical analysis of leaves extract of C. papaya in 90% ethanol

and water 31

Antimicrobial activity of ethanol leaves extract on test

Organisms of C. papaya 32

Antimicrobial activity of leaves water extract of C.papaya 33

Antimicrobial Activity of seed ethanol extract on test organisms 34

Antimicrobial Activity of seeds water extract on the test organisms 31

8. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of leaves extract of

C. papaya against the test organism 32

9. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of seeds extract of

C. papaya against test organism 33






The search for newer source of antibiotics is a global challenge. Research institutions, pharmaceutical companies and academia, find out that many infectious agents are becoming resistant to synthetic drugs (Latha and Kannabirom, 2006). Infectious disease are the world`s major threat to human health and account for about 50,000 deaths everyday (Ahmad and Beg, 2001). The situation has been further complicated with the rapid development of multi drug resistance by microorganisms to the antimicrobial agents available.

This increasing rate of development of resistance to commonly used antibiotics has led to the search for newer more effective, affordable and readily available sources, in particular from local medicinal plant (herbs) (Adekunle and Adekunle, 2009). The use of local plant as primary health remedies due to their pharmacological properties is quite common in Asia, Latin, America, USA, China, Japan, and Africa (Bibitha et al., 2002).

The importance of herbs in the management of human ailments cannot be overemphasized. It is clear that the plant kingdom harbors in inexhaustible source of active ingredients in valuable in the management of many intractable disease. Furthermore, the active components of herbal remedies have the advantage of being combined with other substances that appears to be inactive. However, these complimentary components give the plants as a whole, a safety and efficiency much superior to that of its isolated and pure active components (Ahmad and Beg, 2001).

There is no plant that does not have medical value. The active components are normally extracted from all plant structures, but the concentration of these components vary from structure to structure to however, parts known to contain the highest concentration of principles are preferred for therapeutic purposes and it can either be the leaves, stems, barks, roots, bulks, corns, rhizomes, woods, flowers, fruits or the seeds (Kafaru, 1994).

Medicinal plants are reservoirs of various metabolites and provide unlimited source of important chemicals that have diverse biological properties and represents a rich source from which antimicrobial agent can be obtained. Baladrin et al., (1985) defined medicinal plant as a plant in which one or more of the organs contain substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes or which its precursors for the manufacturing of drugs are useful for disease therapy.

The antimicrobial properties of plants have been investigated by number of studies worldwide and many of them have been used as therapeutic alternatives because of their antimicrobial properties (Adriana et al., 2007). Antimicrobials of plant origin effective in the treatment of infectious diseases and simultaneously mitigating many of the side effects often associated with synthetic antimicrobial agents have been discovered (Rajeshwar, 2005). Medical uses of plants range from the administration of roots, barks, stems, leaves, and seeds to the use of extracts and decoction from the plant (Ogbulic et al., 2007).

Carica papaya belong to the family of Caricaceae, and several species of Caricaceae have been used as remedy against a wide variety diseases (Alabi et al., 2012). C. papaya is a neutraceutical plant having a wide range of pharmacological activities. The whole plant has its one medicinal value papaya is a power house of nutrients and is available throughout the year. The black seed of the papaya are edible and have a sharp, spicy taste. They are sometimes ground and used as a substitute for black pepper. Fruit and seed extracts have antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candidia albican (Peter et al., 2014).

Papaya leaves are made into tea as treatment for malaria, anti-malaria and anti-plasmodia activity has been noted in some preparation of the plant. Papaya leaves extracts have phenolic compounds such as protocatechnic acid 5.7 dimethoxycoumarin, caffeicacid, kaempferol, euercetin and chlorogenic acid (Romasi et al., 2011).


The aims of this research work are as follows;

To evaluate the phytochemical screening of C. papaya leaves and seeds.

To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the ethanol and water extract of C. papaya leaves and seeds


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