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Product Category: Projects

Product Code: 00007831

No of Pages: 52

No of Chapters: 5

File Format: Microsoft Word

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Title Page i

Certification ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement  iv

Table of contents  v

List of tables  vi

List of plates     vii

Abstract     viii




1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Aims and Objectives 3



2.1 Plants used as medicinal sources 4
2.2 Example of plants used in medicine  5

2.3 Active chemical constituents of medicinal action of plants 6

2.4 Characteristics of test Organisms 8

2.4.1 Staphylococcus aureus 9

2.4.2 Enterococcus faecalis 9

2.4.3 Escherichia coli 10

2.4.4 Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10

2.4.5 Mycobacterium smegmatis 11

2.5 Description of the plants 12

2.5.1 Xylopia aethiopica 12

2.5.2 Monodora myristica 13



3.1 Collection and Identification of Plants Materials 16

3.2 Preparation of the Plant Extract 16

3.2.1 Methanol Extract Preparation 16

3.2.2 Preparation  of  stock solution of  extract 17

3.3 Test Organisms 17

3.4 Media Preparation 17

3.5 Assay for Antimicrobial Activity 18        

3.5.1 Reactivation of Microorganisms (stock culture)      18

3.5.2 Antimicrobial Testing      18

3.6 Determination Of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) And Minimum Bactericidal       

       Concentration (MBC)      19

3.7 Phytochemical analysis of the extract      20





4.1Yield of Plant Extracts 23

4.2 Antimicrobial Activity of Different Plants Extracts 23

4.3 Phytochemical Screening Tests 27

Plates 28




5.1 Discussion 28

5.2 Conclusion 29




Table Title Page

1 Yield of the crude extracts of Xylopia aethiopica and Monodora myristica. 23

2 Antimicrobial effects of Extract of X. aethiopica and M. monodora against

the test Organisms. 24            

3 Mean zones of inhibitions of the extracts of X. aethiopica and M. myristica

against the test Organisms. 25                                                                                  

4 Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal

Concentration (MBC) of the extracts against the test Organisms. 26                                                                                                                                       

5 Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different extract of X. aethiopica and

M. myristica 27


Plates Title Page

1   Leaves of Xylopia aethiopica 12

2   Leaves of Monodora myristica 14

3 Zone of Inhibition of P.aeruginosa. 26

4  Zone of Inhibition of E.faecalis 26

5 Zone of Inhibition of S.aureus 27

6 Zone of Inhibition of E.coli 27

7 Zone of Inhibition of M.smegmatis 35




With the increasing incidence of diseases caused by bacteria and other pathogenic microorganisms, as well as the development of drug resistance, there is an urgent need to search for alternatives from plants and other sources to combat these pathogens. The development of a new antibacterial drug is difficult taking into account poor selective toxicity and fast development of resistant bacterial strains with the existing drugs. Frequencies of bacterial resistance to antibacterial drugs are increasing (Srinivassan., 2005). The ease of national and international travel means that resistance organism can be transported easily, making it a global problem. Despite all efforts by health bodies, the threat of bacterial and other infectious disease persist, making the search for more effective and efficient drugs ever more pressing.

Medicinal plants are of great importance to the health of individuals and communities. The medicinal value of these plants lies on some chemical substances that produce a definite physiological action on the human body. The most important of these bioactive constituents of plant materials which serve as spices are of medicinal importance and have been used for the treatment of human ailments as far back as prehistoric times (Aboaba et al.,2011). These spices are used as condiments and ingredients in foods. In Nigeria, some are used for the preparation of certain type of soups and delicacies. In the past decade, considerable attention has been given to screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity such endeavours have been undertaken with the aim of isolating bioactive compounds as an alternative source to chemical synthesis. Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity has given interesting result in that most plant derived antimicrobial active compounds inhibit the replication of bacteria by interfering with steps of the bacterial replication (Kumar et al., 2006; Mathabe et al., 2006). Antimicrobial active compounds of plant origin do not fall in a certain class of compounds but rather possess diverse chemical structures (Kumar et al; 2006).

Nearly all cultures and civilizations from ancient times to the present day have used herbal medicines to cure infections (Moriita et al., 2011; Lino and Deogracious, 2006). In Nigeria and other parts of Africa, traditional system of medicine based mainly on medicines from medicinal plants remain the mainstay of primary healthcare for majority of the rural populace (Ekundayo and Ezeogu., 2006). The intractable problem of antimicrobial resistance has led to the resurgence of interest in herbal products as sources of novel compounds to fight the ever increasing problems of emergence of newer diseases and preventing the resurgence of older diseases. According to the World Health Organisation, 80% of the world’s population rely on traditional medicines to meet their health regiments (Aboaba et al., 2011). Many commercially proven drugs used in modern medicine were initially used in crude form in traditional or folk healing practices or for other purposes that suggested potentially useful biological activity. Medicinal plants generally contain a number of compounds which may be potential natural antibacterial for the treatment of common bacterial infections (Ratnasooriya et al., 2005). Plants derived medicines are relatively safer than synthetic alternatives, offering profound therapeutic benefits and more affordable treatment (Kareem et al., 2010). Among the diseases that have been successfully managed traditionally includes: Malaria, epilepsy, infantile convulsion, diarrhoea, gonorrhoea, bronchitis, tuberculosis amongst other bacterial and fungal infections (Oloyede et al., 2008). This study presents the results of the evaluation of the phytochemical analysis and Antimicrobial activities of the extracts of Xylopia aethiopica and Monodora myristica against five different strains of Bacteria.



The aims of this research project are:

1. To evaluate the Antimicrobial activity of Xylopia aethiopica and Monodora myristica by determining the diameter of zone of inhibition against five bacterial species.

2. To determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of the plant extracts.

3. To conduct phytochemical screening of the plant extracts.

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