ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL WASTAGE IN BUILDING PROJECTS

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Product Code: 00002660

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ABSTRACT

Construction industry is the foremost area in any nation. In light of the profits resulting from the industry, the activities of the industry generates increasing magnitudes of waste which has created a bad image for the industry; and also deplete the limited natural resources. The aim of the study is to evaluate material wastage in building projects in Nigeria, with a view of boosting and enhanced performance of building projects in Nigeria. The objectives of the study are to identify the causes of materials wastage in building projects, identify materials mostly wasted during construction operations, and to assess measures of minimizing construction material waste. In view of the objectives of this study, a total of 120 questionnaires semi-structured questionnaires were administered to various construction professionals in Lagos, Nigeria. Eighty five (85) questionnaires were retrieved, and were carefully coded and the data entered into the statistical package for social science (SPSS V.21). The result indicated that the major cause of waste occurs at the design and documentation stage. This was evident in the study as designer's unfamiliarity with alternative products (3.80) and selection of low quality products (3.41) were ranked high of all the four categories of the sources and causes of material wastage. It was evident that cement/mortar and concrete are the major materials commonly subjected to waste on most site.  Also, the most frequently practiced measured as identified are access to latest information about types of materials on the market (3.52). The study therefore recommend that operatives should be well supervised and coordinated to avoid waste as the operative lack adequate experience in handling resources.

Keywords: Construction Industry, Materials, Waste

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE

DECLARATION........................................................................................................................ ii

CERTIFICATION.................................................................................................................... iii

DEDICATION.......................................................................................................................... iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT......................................................................................................... v

ABSTRACT............................................................................................................................... vi

CONTENTS…………………………………..………………………………………………………vi

LIST OF TABLES…………………………………………………………………………………….ix

 

CHAPTER ONE........................................................................................................................ 1

INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................... 1

1.1        Background to the Study................................................................................................ 1

1.2        Statement of the Research Problem............................................................................... 3

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study......................................................................................... 6

1.3.1 Aim.................................................................................................................................... 6

1.3.2 Objectives of the Study..................................................................................................... 7

1.4 Significant of the Study........................................................................................................ 7

1.5 Scope of the Study................................................................................................................ 7

 

CHAPTER TWO....................................................................................................................... 8

LITERATURE REVIEW.......................................................................................................... 8

2.0 Introduction......................................................................................................................... 8

2.1 The Construction Industry.................................................................................................. 8

2.1.1 The Global Construction Industry................................................................................... 8

2.1.2 International Supply of Construction Services................................................................ 9

2.1.3 The Nigerian Construction Industry.............................................................................. 10

2.1.4 The Clients....................................................................................................................... 11

2.1.5 Professional consultants and Contractors...................................................................... 12

2.2 Wastes and Construction Industry.................................................................................... 12

2.2.1 Meaning of Waste........................................................................................................... 12

2.2.2 Construction Waste......................................................................................................... 13

2.3Types of Construction Waste.............................................................................................. 14

2.3.1 Material Waste................................................................................................................ 14

2.3.2 Magnitude of Waste in Construction.............................................................................. 15

2.4 Sources of Materials Waste............................................................................................... 17

2.4.1 Natural Waste................................................................................................................. 17

2.4.2 Direct waste..................................................................................................................... 17

2.4.3 Indirect Waste................................................................................................................. 18

2.5 Causes of Materials Waste................................................................................................ 19

2.6 Wastage of Key Materials on Construction Sites............................................................. 20

2.6.1 Steel Reinforcement........................................................................................................ 21

2.6.2 Concrete.......................................................................................................................... 21

2.6.3 Timber Formwork........................................................................................................... 22

2.6.4 Cement............................................................................................................................. 23

2.6.5 Sand, Lime, and Premixed Mortar................................................................................. 23

2.6.6 Brick and Block............................................................................................................... 23

2.6.7 Pipes and Wires............................................................................................................... 24

2.7 Materials control on site.................................................................................................... 24

2.7.1 Materials Storage and Handling on Site......................................................................... 27

2.8 Waste Minimization........................................................................................................... 28

2.8.1 Waste Minimization in Construction.............................................................................. 30

2.8.2 The 3 “R”S of Construction Waste Minimization.......................................................... 32

2.8.3 Source Reduction............................................................................................................ 33

2.8.4 Reuse/Salvage of Materials............................................................................................. 34

2.8.5 Recycling......................................................................................................................... 34

2.8.6 Benefits of Construction Waste Minimization................................................................ 35

 

CHAPTER THREE................................................................................................................. 37

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY............................................................................................. 37

3.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................ 37

3.2 Sources of data................................................................................................................... 37

3.2.1. Sources and causes of materials waste.......................................................................... 37

3.2.2. Perception of Professionals on Principles of Waste...................................................... 37

3.3 Research Instrument.......................................................................................................... 38

3.3.1. Questionnaire Design..................................................................................................... 38

3.3.2 Structure of Questionnaire............................................................................................. 38

3.4 Target Population.............................................................................................................. 39

3.5 Sampling Procedure........................................................................................................... 39

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR.................................................................................................................... 40

DATA ANALYSIS, INTERPRETATION AND DISCUSSION.............................................. 40

4.0 Introduction........................................................................................................................ 40

4.1 Socio-economic Characteristics of the Respondent........................................................... 40

4.1.1 Profession of Respondent................................................................................................ 41

4.1.2 Level of Education.......................................................................................................... 41

4.1.3 Level of Experience in Years.......................................................................................... 42

4.1.4 Major Clients.................................................................................................................. 43

4.1.5 Geographical Operational Locations............................................................................. 43

4.2 Sources and Causes of Waste............................................................................................ 44

4.2.1 Design and Documentation............................................................................................. 44

4.2.2 Operational..................................................................................................................... 46

4.2.3 Materials Storage and Handling..................................................................................... 47

4.2.4 Procurement.................................................................................................................... 48

4.2.5 Discussion on All Categories of Sources and Causes of Waste...................................... 49

4.3 Materials Wasted On Site.................................................................................................. 51

4.3.1 Individual Professional Perspectives on Materials Wasted on Site............................... 52

4.4 Possible Measures that Contribute to the Minimization of Material Wastages............... 53

4.5 Test of Difference among the Means of Sources and Causes of Waste............................ 55

4.6 Discussion of findings......................................................................................................... 56

4.6.1 Causes of Waste.............................................................................................................. 56

4.6.2 Materials Wasted On Site............................................................................................... 56

4.6.3 Measures......................................................................................................................... 56

 

CHAPTER FIVE...................................................................................................................... 57

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.............................................. 57

5.0 Introduction........................................................................................................................ 57

5.1 Summary of findings.......................................................................................................... 57

5.2 Conclusions......................................................................................................................... 58

5.3 Recommendations.............................................................................................................. 58

REFERENCES......................................................................................................................... 60

APPENDIX............................................................................................................................... 66

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1: Summary of Direct Waste…………………………..…………….………..         18

Table 2.2: Summary of Waste………………………………………..…………..……         19

Table 2. 3 Sources of Construction Waste……………………………………….….…        20

Table 4.1: Profession  of Respondent ……………………………………………….…       41

Table 4.2: Level of Education …………………………………………………………..     42

Table 4.3: Level Of Experience In Years……………………………………………..…     42

Table 4.4: Major Clients………………………………………………………..…………    43

Table 4.5: Geographical Operational Locations………………………………………….     44

Table 4.6 Design and Documentation……………………………………………….…….  45

Table 4.7: Operational…………………………………………………………………….    46

Table 4.8: Materials Storage and Handling…………………………………………….…   48

Table 4.9: Procurement……………………………………………………………….…..    48

Table 4.10: Rank of all categories of Sources and Causes of Waste……………….…….    49

Table 4.11: Materials Wasted On Site……………………………………………………    51

Table 12: Individual Professional Perspectives on Materials Wasted on Site ………….…  52

Table4.13: Possible Measures That Contribute To the Minimization of Material Wastages.54

Table 4.14: ANOVA among the Means of Sources and Causes of Waste…………….….  56

 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background to the Study

The construction industry is the backbone of every nation, as it is one of the forces driving the socio-economic growth and development of nations of the world; also, it improves the quality of live through the provision of infrastructure like roads, schools, hospitals, and other necessary basic facilities (Eze, Seghosime, Eyong, & Loya, 2017). Construction industry is the foremost area in any nation. In light of the profits resulting from the industry, the activities of the industry generates increasing magnitudes of waste which has created a bad image for the industry; and also deplete the limited natural resources. Eze et al, (2017), labelled the construction industry as one of the largest and most important industries; and at the same time the major consumer of natural resources and one of the largest polluters.

The wastes generated by the industry have not been successfully managed, thus triggering significant health and environmental problems. Wastage on construction site has become a scourge in Nigerian construction industry (Adewuyi & Otali, 2013). In construction, 4-M (Material, Manpower, Money Machine) play crucial role. Depending on the type of a housing project, building materials account for 60 to 70% of the project cost. Through material waste management function, we can reduce the overall project cost by waste minimization or maximum utilization of resources (Material) (Meghani, Bhavsar, Vyas, & Hingu, 2011). This delinquent has adversely affected the performance of many projects in Nigeria.

Adewuyi et al, (2013) cited Obiegbu (2002) perceived that wastage in construction firms has come to stay considering the fact that at least 5% is achieved when preparing the estimate for a project which is usually not adequate. Wastage can be seen in many ways in the particularity of construction works. In light of this, a very high level of waste is assumed to exist in construction. Although it is difficult to systematically measure all wastes in construction, partial studies from various countries have confirmed that waste represents a relatively large percentage of production costs. A wide range of measures have been used for monitoring waste, such as excess consumption of materials, quality failure costs, and maintenance and repair costs, accidents, and nonproductive time (Alshboul & Ghazaleh, 2014)

This proved that many construction works have wastage because it is an issue that cannot be removed from construction work. There have been different descriptions of materials wastage in buildings projects by different authors.  Adewuyi et al, (2013) and Shen, (2002), defined materials wastage in buildings projects as the difference between the value of materials delivered and accepted on site and those properly used as specified and accurately measured in the work after deducting the cost saving of substituted materials transferred elsewhere in which unnecessary cost, building material wastage can be defined as the difference between the value of materials delivered and accepted on site and those properly used as specified and accurately measured in the work after deducting the cost saving of substituted materials transferred elsewhere in which unnecessary cost  and time may be incurred by the material wastage.

Shen, (2002), defined building material wastage as the difference between the value of materials delivered and accepted on site and those properly used as specified and accurately measured in the work after deducting the cost saving of substituted materials transferred elsewhere in which unnecessary cost and time may be increased by the material wastage. Al-Hajj & Hamani, (2011), perceive construction waste as the difference between what was purchased and what was actually used.

This shows that waste in building construction projects is important not only from the perspective of efficiency. Also, there have been concern in this recent years about the adverse effect of the waste of building materials on the environment. This kind of waste typically accounts for between 15 and 30% of urban (Alshboul & Ghazaleh, 2014). Building materials waste is difficult to recycle due to high levels of contamination and a large degree of heterogeneity (Meghani et al, 2011). Wastes have affected the performance of many projects in Nigeria (Eze, Sehosime, Eyong, & Loya, 2017; Adeagbo, Achuenu, & Oyemogun, 2016; Arijeloye & Akinradewo, 2016; Adewuyi & Otali, 2013; Wahab & Lawal, 2011).

Eze, Sehosime, Eyong, & Loya, (2017) and Wahab & Lawal, (2011), discussed that ineffective material planning and control on construction sites could result to poor performance and unplanned outcomes of construction projects. Construction projects are faced with severe problems of time and cost overruns, as well as construction waste. Polat and Ballard (2004), submitted that, a very high level of waste exists in construction. Since construction has a major and direct influence on many other industries by means of both purchasing inputs and providing the products to all other industries, eliminating or reducing waste in the construction industry could yield great cost savings to the society.

Despite disparities in the construction projects, potential material waste is caused by similar inefficiencies in design, procurement, material handling, operation or residual on-site waste such as packaging (Adeagbo, et al, 2016; Wahab & Lawal, 2011; Formoso et al., 1993; Gavilan and Bernold, 1994). However, this studied will examining the causes or factors affecting construction material waste generation on building construction project, and similarly considered and analyzed these factors statistically. This is to establish the effects of these researched factors have on building construction project and also made available the result of the finding for contractors, specialists and other professionals in the study area.

 

1.2        Statement of the Research Problem

Various scholars has carried out studies on material wastage in construction projects locally (Formoso et al, 2002; Eze, et al. 2017;  Ugochukwu, et al. 2017; Adeagbo, et al. 2016; Arijeloye & Akinradewo, 2016; Adewuyi, et al. 2014; Adewuyi & Otali, 2013; Fagbenle, et al. 2011; Wahab & Lawal, 2011; Akinkurolere & Franklin, 2005; Ekanayake & Ofori, 2004) and internationally (Tareq & Ahmed, 2018; Husnain, et al. 2017; Gulghane & Khandve, 2015; Zenith, 2015; Alshboul & Ghazaleh, 2014; Canberra Business Chamber, 2014; Jingkuang & Yousong, 2013; Kareem & Pandey, 2013; Safeer & Arun, 2012; Swinburne, et al. 2010; Tam, 2008; Polat & Ballard, 2004; Shen, 2002; Gavilan & Bernold, 1994; and Formoso, et al. 1993) from different perceptive and emphases.

Formoso et al. (2002) was one of the first studies on material waste in Brazil, involving a single case study based on data from an 18-storey residential building project that was chosen because all the records of materials supply and use were well kept by the construction company. Both direct and indirect wastes of 10 building materials were estimated. The waste percentages included both direct and indirect waste. The total waste was 18% of the weight of all materials purchased, representing an additional cost of 6%. One of the main contributions of this study was that it pointed out the importance of indirect waste in relation to direct waste. For instance, the amount of indirect waste of mortar was as much as 85% of the designed volume of plaster. This represents not only a waste of materials, but also a significant unnecessary additional load on the building structure.

Akinkurolere et al, (2005) carried out an investigation into Waste Management on Construction Sites in South Western Nigeria. The study focused on the dangers posed by material waste in the construction industry, ways of minimizing construction waste, ways of keeping proper site records for accountability sake. And recommend effective waste management measures. This research adopted questionnaires to collect data from construction professionals, and employed tables and statistical indices for the data analysis. The study revealed that material wastage increase the cost of construction project and reduce contractor’s profit. And attributed construction was to poor management and lack of effective waste management awareness. The study recommended that construction waste management should be recycled and reused. And through giving incentives to workers for proper handling, material wastage is reduced; and trained personnel should be used as supervisors.

Wahab & Lawal, (2011), evaluated waste control measures in construction industry in Lagos, Nigeria. The study assessed the forms, causes and factors incidental to waste and measures to effectively control construction waste. The study adopted questionnaire, interview and site visit to collect it data from construction professionals. Study used Relative Important index, frequency and percentages to analyze its data. The study reported that factors incidental to waste, design variation are caused by last minute client requirement; cost of construction materials was major factor influencing construction materials selection; and construction cost factor leads to method of construction.

The study revealed that most firms do not calculate waste indices which could assist them to determine the amount of waste generated, and no proper sorting exercise of waste during construction. Also, most firms do not incorporate “waste management plan” in their tender documents. To control waste, designers should coordinate dimensions between materials specified and those procured, proper material handling, storage and usage were advocated and that “waste management plan” should be incorporated in tender submission of contracting firms.

Babatunde (2012), carried out a study on Quantitative Assessment of Construction Materials Wastage in the Nigerian Construction Sites. The study’s purpose was to quantitatively assess construction materials wastage in construction sites with a view to providing background information at the design stage on allowable percentage of construction materials waste that will enhance construction project delivery. The study used structured questionnaires to collect data from construction professionals in Abuja municipal, Nigeria. The study analyzed its data using average, percentage and relative significant index (RSI). The study found out that the most type of waste on construction site is theft and vandalism, cutting waste, transit waste and application waste.

The study concluded that 15.32% are construction materials waste in the Nigerian construction sites; and recommended 15- 20% allowance for all types of construction materials waste in Nigeria. It is evident that previous studies have mostly focused only on the sensitivity and awareness of construction professionals, separating out others key stakeholders that are both physically and directly involved in the carrying out the construction works and the production of the finished building. However, Adewuyi & Otali (2013) term the site supervisors and the site operatives as people who are directly involved in the art of putting the raw materials together to form the building envelope.

Hence, it is clear from previous researches both at local and international level that these groups of stakeholders have been neglected. It is against this backdrop that this study is predicated. The outcomes of this study will enable the clients, consultants, contractors, and construction professionals know that site operatives and craft men are aware of material waste and are conscious of contributing to their reduction during construction. The outcome will also add to the body of knowledge available on construction waste management. General, construction operatives and craft men will be considered important stakeholders in the scheme of things regarding making decision in construction operations that relate to construction waste generation and management.

 

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study

1.3.1 Aim

The aim of this study is to evaluate material wastage building projects in Nigeria with a view to boosting the performance of building projects in Nigeria.

1.3.2 Objectives of the Study

To achieve this aim, the following are the objectives of the study;

           i.            To identify materials mostly wasted during construction operations,

         ii.            To identify the causes of materials wastage in building projects,

       iii.            To determine measures of minimizing construction material waste.

 

1.4 Significance of the Study

The study seeks to have positive implications on the Nigerian building construction industry. Among them are; the results will enable building organizations to improve construction quality\y; efficiency through the implementation of the measures suggested to remove potential barriers to the implementation of lean construction. Minimizing materials waste would improve project performance and enhance value for individual customers, and this have a positive impact on the national economy growth and development.

 

1.5 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study covers the causes of materials wastage in building projects; identifying the most wasteful material produced during construction operations; determining the most important factors that influence material waste production during construction work; determining the measures of minimizing construction material waste, and, analyzing the most important benefit of material waste minimization.

 

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