abandoned housing project is a construction and development work on site of the
project that has been terminated for the preceding 6 months or months or more.
Such termination has either occurred consecutively or occurred during the
period within which the project must be completed or beyond the required
of housing projects during construction is a prevailing problem that the
housing sector in omu-aran town, Kwara state has been experiencing, and the
issue of abandoned housing project is a matter of grave importance in Kwara
the research seek to focus on the causes of abandoned housing in omu-aran town,
in achieving thus aim of the study, the following objectives are, to identify
the causes of abandoned houses within the study area, to identify the causes of
abandoned housing projects and to determine the effects of projects abandonment
within the study area.
research design that will be adopted on this project is survey design and the
target population on this research is basically people residing at the study
area, developers, government agencies and professionals. The methods of data collection that will be
adopted for this research are secondary sources. i.e journals,internet,past
project and text books, and primary sources, I. E oral interview, questionnaire
and personal observation. The method that will be use to analyze data will be
in table, charts, and other statistical method.
Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 4
1.3 Aim and objectives 4
1.4 Significance of the study 5
of the study 5
of the study 6
of terms 8
2.0 Literature review 11
of Abandoned projects 12
of abandoned housing projects 14
process of abandoned projects 16
recovering strategy 17
2.3.3 The problems of recovering the abandoned
housing projects 18
Steps of prevention by the
Ministry of housing and Local government to avoid abandoned projects
2.4 Effects of the abandoned housing projects 21
2.5 Theoretical framework 22
2.6 Review of empirical studies 25
2.7 Research gap 27
2.8 Summary of the review 28
3.0 Research methodology 34
3.1 Introduction 34
3.2 Research design 35
3.3 Population of the study 35
3.4 Method of data collection 36
3.5 Instruments for data collection 37
3.6 Sample frame, sample size and sampling
3.7 Method of data analysis 38
3.8 Questionnaire design 39
4.0 Data analysis and interpretation 41
4.1 Introduction 41
5.0 Summary of findings, conclusion and
5.1 Summary of findings 52
5.2 Conclusion 53
5.3 Recommendations 54
Background To The Study
Abandonment of housing projects is
considered one of the most common and serious problems facing omu-aran town,
Kwara state. It affects not only the immediate purchaser but also other
projects players and the general public.
Sometimes it involves expending public fund to revive abandoned housing
projects. (Bavani, 2009)
The unceasing abandonment of
development housing projects is so
shocking in the developing town such as that omu-aran town, Kwara state has
remained one of the town in such difficulty, therefore, the significance that
the incessant abandonment of projects would bring several effects on real
properties and it’s values and the economy can not be overemphasized since some
of the development projects provide the basic services that should enhance the
real properties developed. The abandonment of development project is the act of
discounting or any discontinuing any activities or maintenance works on such
development project within a time frame of the contract agreement and with no
intention of returning back to the development while reflecting on property
development projects suggests that it is when the owner or developer is ceasing
to provide the required maintenance management to a development or a developed
A project may be abandoned at any
stage of the life cycle and incur significant amount of loss. For a housing projects, the ministry of
housing and local government considers tat is has been abandoned if,
i. There has been no substantial activity on
site for six (6) consecutive months.
It is involved in a winding up petition
registered at the town planning authority.
A real property developed project
(housing estate or building) though amongst the development projects, whether
it be tangible or intangible should be capable of having values, as well as having
the right of possession, it must be noted that all the construction projects
are completed on time or ahead of schedule. It is also not uncommon for
construction projects to be delayed, or in the worst scenario even abandon due
to various reasons aforementioned. Although, development projects are temporary
endeavors undertaken to create a unique product and services with a define
beginning and ending date (Gardner, 2005). The accomplishment of such purposes
should be realized at least times otherwise needless of such development
The causes and effects of the development
projects abandonment are not just peculiar to a reason rather cut across
several reasons (Ayodele and Alabi,
2011) and as well as creating a total dwindling effect on the values of developed
properties located close and within the vicinity. The expected prominence of any earmarked
development projects is to be completed, while at the same time, adding values
to built environment aesthetic.
However, real property development projects being a
capital intensive undertaking should be critically analyzed to ascertain its
feasibility and viability before embarking on it. But on several occasions and
had been observed governments, contractors and agencies have abandoned
development projects mid-way into construction and completion.
the study purpose is to investigate and evaluate the causes and effects of
development housing project abandonment. Hence the objectives of this study is
to; Identify the abandoned houses projects within the study area, to identify
the causes of abandoned housing projects and to determine the effects of
abandonment of within the study area. There is need for a research that will
investigate the causes of abandoned construction projects and this can be
acquired from questionnaire, survey, semi-structured interview involving the
key players ( I.e Developers, contractors
and consultants) covering housing
projects. This will allow for more
comprehensive view of the problem of abandoned project in omu-aran town.
1.2 Statement Of The Problems
Concerning the production of
housing in omu-aran, the private developers have been allocated development
areas which have been identified by the local government authorities for
housing development. The allocation for housing development by the local
government authorities is made via development plans, such as structural plans
or local plans. This means that land supply for housing development in omu-aran
has been allocated the local authority, and developers initially have to select
on site which has been allocated for housing.
Therefore, the developers have to
study the market before making a decision on any housing development and have
to select a suitable site within the area which has been allocated.
Nevertheless, the existence of abandoned housing projects
in omu-aran where the homebuyers have suffered and has jeopardized the housing
industry and contributed to the housing industry problem. One can see that the
existence of abandoned housing problems should be considered seriously. These
problems may also influence the housing stock available in the market, thus
affecting the supply.
The existence of abandoned housing projects could affect
the credibility of the relevant authority that is involved in giving approval
for housing development.
For this reason, this
research will evaluate the abandonment of housing problems, specially the
causes of abandoned housing projects in omu-aran town, Kwara state.
1.3 Aim And Objectives
The aim of this study is
to focus on the causes of abandoned housing projects in Kwara state, a case
study of omu-aran town. In achieving
aimof the study, the following objectives are;
To identify the abandoned housing projects
within the study area.
To identify the causes of abandoned
To determine the effects of projects abandonment
within the study area.
1.4 Significance Of The Study
First, the study will made a significant
contribution to the body of knowledge in the area of the building industry in
omu-aran town, Kwara state.
Secondly, this study will prove
valuable in providing a better understanding if the issue to the private
developers and to the government agencies, and thereby by further contribute to
the literature in relation to comparative house building industry.
the findings of the study will be useful for giving guidance in developing a
model that could explain the real determinants of the causes of abandoned
housing projects to the developers and to the government agencies that are
involved in the building industry. This model will be helpful in providing
reliable forecast of the factors that causes the project to be abandoned, this
would then aid planning to prevent housing development being abandoned.
Finally, this study has produced significant policy recommendations
for the private developers and government agencies which could help the problem
of abandoned housing projects in omu-aran in the future.
1.5 Scope Of The Study
study concentrates and restricted on the abandoned housing projects in omu-aran
town, Kwara state. The research work covers both the private and the public
building sectors. It seeks to evaluate the abandoned housing projects in
omu-aran, kwara state.
1.6 Limitation Of The Study
is not easy to achieve a high response from the failure developers, compared with
that from successful developers. However, the response rate from this group is
considered significant for the purposes of this study, despite that it was not easy
to prove such findings, which are related to fraudulent claims and weakness of
government agencies although these findings disclosed the reality of the
problems related to housing abandonment. It should also be acknowledge that,
although the findings of this research are remarkable and useful towards the
understanding of the perception of the developers on the issues of housing
abandonment, they are based on study of relatively small number of failures,
developerscompared with the numbers of successful developers.
Some factors really limit the coverage
of this study among which are;
Time allowed for this research work is too
small for the wide relevant topic of this nature.
Scarcity of relevant test also limits the
extent of this literature review on the subject topic.
The cost of revisiting the case study area
also serves as a problem.
1.7 Historical Background Of The Study Area
is the most populous and largest town in igbomina land of kwara state. The town
was originally called “OMU” but was later changed to omu-aran, about 1,400
people moved finally to the present site.
The name “omu” derived from omutoto, the woman whose children
established the first settlement at odoomu between the 13th and 14thcentury.
Indeed, it was largely in recognition ofomu-aran historical importance, in
igbomina land that the town was choosed as the head quarter of the former
igbomina, ekiti local government authority in 1968.
It was also became the head quarter of irepodun local
government area when the former igbomina ekiti local government was split into 2
on the 24th of August 1976. The people speak igbomina dialect or
Yoruba language and their costumes are in many ways similarly to those of the
occupation was largely influence by the vegetation of the area. Though,they are
predominantly farmers, producing such crops as yams, maize, guinea corn, cassava, beans and vegetables for consumption
while the colanut, palm products, Cocoa
and coffee in very small quantities are economics crops.
Omu-aran is a famous in handicrafts such as basket
making, blacksmithing, carving, dying
clothes, weaving, wood carving and poultry.
Omu-aran is a town located in the
southern part of Kwara state, Nigeria. Named after the first ruler “OlomuAperan
“ . Aperan was a prince from Ile-ife, who moved from ile-ife to form odoomuand
igbomina land, about 500years ago, omu-aran is the capital of irepodun local
The local government was created as
igbomina /ekiti division in 1968,which later metamorphosed in to the irepodun
local government area in 1976, as a result of 1976 local government reformed.
Omu-aran remain the seat of power with eleven word and six offices for
administrative services. It is shares boundary with ifelodun local government
area to the north, Osun state to the south respectively. Irepodun has an estimated
population of about 148,610 people according to 2006 population census and land mass 1,095 square
kilometers. It is endowed with Savannah and rain forest vegetation on plain
terrain with patches of rivers and streams.
Definition Of Terms
This is the act of discontinuing
any activities or maintenance works on any project within the time frame of the
contract agreement and with no intention of returning back to the work. (Wikipedia 2017)
Development is the
process of converting land to a new purpose by constructing buildings or making
use of its resources, development mean the process of carrying out construction
work which are associated with a change intensity to the use of land or with the
re-establishing of existing use. (Webster international dictionary, 2010)
Evaluation is a
systematic and objectives assessment of an ongoing or completed project,
programme or policy, its design implementation and fulfilment of objectives, effectiveness,
impact and sustainability. (UNEG 2017)
This is a building or structure
that individuals and their family may live in that meets certain federal
regulations. It is anything that covers,
protects or supports another thing. (Business dictionary 2017)
A publicly built and
operated housing development usually intends for low or moderate income tenants,
senior citizen etc. ( Dictionary.com
A project is defined as a
temporary endeavor with a beginning and end it must be used to create a unique product,
service or result and it is a progressively elaborated. (project management
body of knowledge, 3rd edition 2016)
This is land or building
that is owned or possessed by a person or
particular individual. (Oxford
includes a range of activities from the purchase of land, development of
facilities and buildings to meet customers’ requirements. It is also includes either sale or lease of
the land of properties on completion. Developers generally coordinate the
activities converting plans, needs and ideas into property. (Goodman 2017).