TABLE OF CONTENTS.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES AIM
OF THE STUDY
1.6 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF LOW INCOME
2.2 FEDERAL GOVERNMENT LOW COST HOUSING
2.3.1 CONTRIBUTION OF PRIVATE BODIES IN HOUSING PROGRAMME
2.3.2 THE EXISTING LOW-INCOME HOUSING ESTATE BUILT
BY KWARA STATE
OF KWARA STATE ILORIN1967
2.4.1 CONCEPT OF REAL ESTATE
2.4.8 PHYSICAL CONSTRUCTION
LAND TENURE SYSTEM
2.5.1 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK FOR
2.5.2 FUNCTIONS OF THE FEDERAL
FOR DATA COLLECTION
FRAME SIZE AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE
PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS OF RESPONDENTS FROM CASE
5.0 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Housing is paramount human existence
as it ranks among the top three needs of man. Its provision has always been of
great necessity to man as a unit of the environment housing has profound
influence on the health efficiency, social behaviour, satisfaction and general
welfare of the community. It is a reflection of the cultural, social and
economic values of society and one of the best historical evidences of the
civilization of a country (Olotuah, 2000)
provision of adequate housing in any country is very vita as housing is a
stimulant of the national economy. Housing is a set of durable assets, which
accounts for a high proportion of country’s wealth and on which households
spend a substantial part of their income. It is for these reasons that housing
has become a regular feature in economic, social and political debates often
with highly charged emotional contents (Agbola 1998).
In Nigeria, like in many other
developing nations of the world housing problem are multi dimension. The
problem of population explosion continuous influx of people from the rural to
the urban centre, and the lack of basic infrastructure required for good
standard of living have compounded housing problem over the years. Access to
this basic need by the poor whose constitute the large percentage of the world
population has remained a mirage and it needs to be critically addressed. Ogieto
(1987) has observed that the disparity between the price and quantity
of housing on the one hand, and the number of household and the money available
to them to pay these prices in the other, constitute the central problem of
housing. The cost at which houses reach the market goes a long way to determine
affordability, where the unit cost of houses is abnormally high only a few
people are able to afford the houses. According to Okupe the Windapo (2000)
the gap between income and shelter cost in Nigeria is very wide. This has
almost eliminated the low-income earners from the housing market. A panacea to
the problem is the contribution of co-operative societies and private
developers to housing finance whose activities, particularly in tertiary
institutions, this paper focuses in towards facilitating improved accessibility
level to housing finance by low-income earners in Nigeria.
It is accepted worldwide that in order
of priority, only food takes precedence over shelter in man’s wants or needs.
One of the most important things in our lives is where we live. Though low
income housing had been prepared, our dream of housing for all in the year 200
had come and gone without any meaningful improvement in both the quality and
quantity of our real estate.
The problem of adequate and quantity
housing remain unsolved and threaten civilization.
Government has been largely responsible
for the large scale of housing project whose greater proportion ends up in hand
of high income have been done in many area from real estate development that
make re-arrange the low income for benefit of people.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES AIM
aim of this research work is to assess the low income housing programme in
1. To determine the stages and condition
of housing in the study area
2. To examine the problems associated with
the management of housing in Kwara state
3. To suggest the way forward in making
housing available for the populace.
4 To make suggestions on improvement in
the quantity and quality of the various existing low cost housing scheme.
OF THE STUDY
study is basically designed to look into various effort undertaken by the state
and Federal Government in the provision of houses for the people in form of low
cost housing estate.
study also takes a cursory look at the estate management/ development principle
as practiced by the Kwara state government statutory bodies.
are various constraints which limit the extent to which the research for this
project right to have been carried out.
There was limited time during the research of this project.
Inadequate information:-the information collected was not enough during the
Un-cooperative attitudes:-some of the respondent felt reluctant to give answers
to some of the question thrown to them while some kicked against the inspection
of their compounds.
Inadequate funds:-This will normally set a limit to the extent to which
research could go in his findings. The lack of inadequate finance is the
greatest obstacle to progress in this exercise. However, much has been done to
make the limited find available.
states peaceful population abundant natural resources, well developed
infrastructure and proactive investment- attraction policies have made it an
attractive destination for investors.
state is one of the 36 states that make up the federal republic of Nigeria
Africa’s most populous country. Kwara state shares a boundary to its west with
the republic of Benin and has its Northern boundary, the Niger River.
capital city of Lagos and 500km from the federal capital, Abuja major town
include offa and Jebba, located on the river.
state comprises rainforest in the southern parts with wooded savannah covering
the large part of the state. The soil is fertile and the state is well watered by
the various tributaries of the Niger River which run through hills and valleys
none of which rise to any great height.
The western section of the state is
at a slightly higher attitude than the eastern. This is a summer rainfall area,
with an annual rainfall range of 1000mm to 1500mm. The month of December and
January coincide with the cold and dry harmattan period. Average maximum
temperatures vary between 3000c and 3500c.
1.6 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF LOW INCOME
HOUSING PROGRAMME IN NIGERIA.
The history of housing development
in Nigeria can be divided
four phase. The colonial era, pre-colonial era, post independence era, 1960-
1972. Then the oil boom period i.e. 1972 - 1979, the civilian regime period
1979 -1983 and military era 1984-1989.
The colonial period has been
described as the era of housing reservation or the era of white ghettos.
This is an era when all the housing
activities and housing policies of the government focused on the provision of
quarter for the expatriate staff of the government. The Nigeria masses received
no form of housing assistant from the government and only a handful of civil
servant benefited indirectly or directly from any government housing scheme. No
direct purposeful action was taken to involve a housing policy or programme to
benefit Nigerian, a great of who were living in what will be termed substandard
Post independent period in the
twelve years of independent, the hosing programme consisted the activity of the
Lagos executive development board, the housing corporation and the Nigeria
building societies and how to appraise of the performance of housing programme
during this era shows that little was achieved by way of directed construction
concern of government for the citizen is to create an avoidable space for the
The main concern of the federal
government in housing during the period was created to provide residential
quarters for the workers.
In addition, slump clearance and
resettlement of those affected take place In the federal territory of Lagos.
The Federal Government allocated some money to the African staff housing scheme
and the Nigeria building society.
The amount provided for those two
schemes was grossly inadequate to meet the housing needs that this institution
was expected to meet.
Theses scheme largely benefited the
high income groups both in the private and public sector of the economy,
because the condition for granting a mortgage been favour them. The same post
independent era then fair regional government and the finance resource of the
corporation were very small and the operation of their scheme was out of the reach
of common man. The performance of Housing Corporation was more or less a token;
performance in the provision of housing was given a very low priority national
development allocation during this era
OIL BOOM ERA
Oil boom era contributed in the
tremendous increase in a government in government revenue resulting from the
oil boom as well as the attendance quickened phase of urbanization led to a
change for greater in the federal government assumed a major social respondent
for the provision of housing throughout the federation. The following were the
main activities during those periods.
The national council consisted of
all commissioners responsible for housing in the federation.
In 1971, the federal government
acquired the common wealth development co-operation building society this
increased the federal government share in the society to 91%
In May 1973, the federal government
declared that 59,000 housing units would be build in different parts of the
country 15,000 of these were proposed for Lagos 4,000 units were allocated to
each of the 12 state capitals. This was the beginning of federal government of
government investment in the direct provision of residential unit.
In 1973, the federal housing
authority was set up to see the implementation of the federal government
housing programme. Housing cooperation was set up in each of the 12 state.
Housing cooperation and eastern region.
Under the 3rd national
development plan 1978-1980 the government of the federation voted
N 25 billion for housing development over
90% of the outlay was to be expected on the direct construction of low rental
value unit, mainly for the low and medium group in part of the country. the
amount N 2. 5 billion was expected to
generate 202,000 housing units throughout the planned period
The units were broken down as
follows 8,000 housing unit for each of the state and 50,000 for Lagos state.
The federal housing authority was expected to provide the infrastructure to
provide the additional 12,000 unit with each of the state government would
build. However as at the end of planned period less than 50% of the target set
was actually achieved.
All state was far from target set.
the reason advance for the low level of achievement include initial difficulty
in getting land acquired for the scheme administration capacity, slow phase of
construction by contractor non-availability of fund for executing project.
The unrealistic nature of the target
set end or wrong in appropriate approach to the execution and management of
federal and state housing scheme.
The anti-inflationary task force
which was set up to examine the inflationary tender in the economy and to
identify their cause death with housing, among other things in line with the
recommendation of the anti inflation task force, the rent panel was set up in
1976 to review the level as structure of rent in the country
The period between 1972 and 1979
witnessed an era in which federal government was committed to implement its
housing programmes within a national work. it was the first time in Nigeria
history that special housing programmes was introduced for low income worker
throughout the federation. A solid foundation was also land for massive housing
However, it should be noted that the
government housing programmes during this period were too ambitious and actual
performance was far from target set.
In 1978, the land use degree was
promulgated by which all land in the states was vested in the hands of the
governor of the state to hold in trust for the people. The degree set
regulation for land allocation and management. However, the implementation of
land use decree has remained a problematic issue and most of the objectives of
which it was promulgated have been difficult to achieve.
Civilian era 2nd republic
at the beginning of civilian administration in the second republic both the
states and federal government gave priority to housing programmes embarked upon
by different states and federal government. Practically extraordinary in this
sector in the housing programmes of Jakande of Lagos state and the Oyo
state government under chief Bola-ige.
Under the federal housing scheme,
the federal government planned to construct 2,000 housing unit per year in each
of the 19states of the federation and federal capital territory. In five year,
the plan of the federal government was to build a total of 2000 housing units,
each of the state government also proposed to build equally substantial number
of housing project were well.
Both the state and federal housing
project were well under way and few state were about to attract some of the
completed houses when military took over again from civilian.
When military took over the
government the economy of the country was already at abysmal state. The
politician becomes shameful. They were mainly concern with salvaging the
already battered national economic which was bastardized by the ruling federal
party to a ridiculous level. The low income housing programme of the former
federal government, civilian regime was revisited. The federal military
government gave directive that the army as well as police should take
possession of unoccupied and unallocated building of completed houses in the
remote part of the country where they were located as barrack.
The rest were to the taken over by
the local government authority under whose jurisdiction the site lies.
Furthermore, the federal military
government announced the complete hand off of private rental premises for
government worker and instead paid housing allowance to individual official
should look for their own accommodation.
Low income has been impressive
advances in the past three or four decades. The most successful ones have
pursued market. Friendly development strategies. The private sectors have been
the engines of growth, generating sustained increase in income to allow
investment in broadly base and long-term development. And the government has
been focusing on macroeconomic stability, on the business environment, and on
basic physical infrastructure and human resources. The result are how to
sustained high growth rates, with widely share gains in living standards.
This is a process of carrying out
constructional works that are associated with a change with the use of land or
with re-establishment of an existing one.
A legal entity denoting the quality
and quantity of rights an owner has in a real property. It is control having
physical, economic, legal and managerial characters.
The number of units demanded for
hosing in an urban area may he considered as substantially competent to occupy
separate dwelling units. Housing units therefore the adequate provision of
housing for every family that required it and to meet the demand for it by the
These are persons or group of people
as an organization and professional that are involved in the process of
carryout constructional works are associated with a change in the use of land
or land with its building or with a re-establishment of an existing use,
It is the subject matter of
ownership that anything belongs to a person giving the exclusive right to enjoy
a thing. Examples are lands and buildings. Real property denotes interest and
rights interest in ownership of the physical real estate. It is a cluster of
right that could be made the subject of a real action
This process involves selection of
site, [preparation of building plan, bill of quantity and awarding of contract
of competent and tested builder/civil engineering contractors.
This involves a location of large
arc of development land to developers are given certificate of occupancy on the
land after paying the required charges. This developers there after prepared
the layout plan, obtain necessary building approval from appropriate government
agency and developed the same into various real properties many residential and
commercial building have been developed through this process e.g. Royal valley
estate, kulende Ilorin, Victoria garden city and crown estate in Lagos.
Policy is implies statement of an
ideas especially is made by the government political party business company
therefore housing policy is a writing document which usually comprises specific
objective strategies and programme aims at solving the housing problem or
meeting with the ever increasing housing needs and demands of a country or