THE EFFECT OF PUBLIC HOUSING SCHEME ON PROPERTY VALUE. CASE STUDY OF LAGOS METROPOLIS – (IPONRI HOUSING ESTATE)

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ABSTRACT

 

Shelter is one of the most basic needs of man and inadequate supply of housing is a universal urban problem, more so in the less developed and developed countries. It is also acceptable that there are some links between the rate and degree of urbanization and the housing programmes is increasingly gaining acceptance as a viable method of dealing with the urban housing needs.

The research objective of the study was to find out if the public housing scheme has a significant effect on property value or not

 

            The literacy and illiteracy level of the occupiers in the selected scheme served as a form of hindrance for data collection when having a personal interview with the occupants, also the bureaucratic nature or process involved in obtaining information from the residents within the area of study and relevant data needed from the government agencies and the professional Estate Surveyors and valuers served as an hindrance for proper data collection for the study.

 

            Finding shows that that insufficient land space together with cost and ease of land acquisition; instability in government policy, lack of finance needed for housing development, high interest rate, operation of the mortgage institutions, cost of building materials; increase in rent; selection of tenants, maintenance culture; inability of private and public sector practitioners to foster mutual synergy in housing provision and the growing population of the urban poor were identified as major challenges surcharging housing provision in the study area.

 

It was recommended that regulatory framework that support robust macro and micro economy should be pursue so that the earning capacity of the people can readily match up with inflation trend which unfortunately is impacting negatively on many household and their hope of better shelter

 

Conclusively, the adequacy of provision of social and physical infrastructure in public housing schemes and how effectively the schemes have been integrated into the larger urban environment and how it has affected property value in the study area seems to be premised on the concept of value which arguably is plausible in the sense that the market is seen as a clearing house for the determination of worth of an interest in property provided the fair market requirement are met.

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Contents                                                                                                                Pages

Title page                                                                                                                    i

Certification                                                                                                                ii

Dedication                                                                                                                  iii

Acknowledgement                                                                                                      iv

Table of contents                                                                                                        v - vii

 List of Tables                                                                                                             vii –ix

List of figures                                                                                                             ix-xi

Abstract                                                                                                                      xii

 

CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1              Introduction                                                                                                    1

1.2              Statement of problem                                                                                     3

1.3              Aim and objectives                                                                                         4

1.4              Research Hypothesis                                                                                       4

1.5              Scope of study                                                                                                            5

1.6              Significance  of study                                                                                     5

1.7              Limitation  of study                                                                                        5

1.8              Definitions of terms                                                                                        6

References                                                                                                      7

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELEVANT LITERATURE                                  

 

2.1       Introduction                                                                                                    8                                                                                             

2.2       Historical Background of Housing                                                                 8

2.3       Concept of Housing                                                                                        15

2.3.1    Contribution of Public Housing Sector into Housing stock

of Lagos Metropolis.                                                                                       16

2.4       Factors Affecting Property Value                                                                  19

2.4.1    Effect of public housing scheme on property value                                       22

2.4.2     The Challenges between the Public and Private Housing Sector                  23

2.4.3    Problems Confronting the Public Housing Schemes                                      27

2.4.4    Housing Delivery                                                                                            28

2.4.5    Housing Need                                                                                                30

2.4.6    Roles of housing corporations in Nigeria                                                        31

2.4.7    Constraints facing Housing Corporation in Nigeria                                       35

            References                                                                                                      40       

CHAPTER: THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND STUDY AREA/ CASE STUDY

3.1       Introduction                                                                                                    42

3.2       Restatement of Research Hypothesis                                                             42

3.2  .1   Restatement of Research Objectives                                                              42

3.3       Sources of Data                                                                                              43

3.3.1    Primary Source                                                                                                43

3.3.2    Secondary Data                                                                                              43

3.4       Characteristics of population of study                                                            43

3.5       Sampling Techniques                                                                                      43

3.5.1    Sampling Design                                                                                             43

3.5.2    Sampling Procedure                                                                                        44

3.5.3    Determination of Sampling Size                                                                     44

3.6       Questionnaire Administration                                                                         44

3.6.1    Questionnaire Design                                                                                     45

 3.6.2   Questionnaire Distribution                                                                              45

3.6.3    Collection of Responses                                                                                 46

3.7       Techniques of Data Analysis                                                                          46

3.8       Limitation of Research Methodology                                                             46

3.8.1    Historical Background of Lagos State                                                           47

3.8.2    Study Area / Case Study                                                                                48

            Reference                                                                                                        49

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1              Introduction

4.2              Presentation and Analysis of Data according to response to the research

4.3              Presentation and Analysis of Data based on research objectives

4.4              Analysis of other Relevant Data

References 

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, RECOMMENDATIONS, CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES

5.1              Summary

5.2              Recommendations based on Research Findings

5.3              Conclusion 

5.4               Suggestion for Further Studies

References

Bibliography

 Appendix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                        Pages

                                                                                                                         

4.1             Period of Occupancy                                                                    51

4.2             Type of Accommodation available                                               52

4.3            Satisfactory level of accommodation.                                           53

4.4             Rental income of properties.                                                         54

4.5             Willingness to pay higher rent if facilities are improved              55

4.6             Adequacy of water supply in the estate.                                      56

4.7             Adequacy of Electricity Supply in the estate.                              56

4.8             Adequacy and functional roads network within the estate.         57

4.9             Adequacy of Telephone Service in the estate.                              57

4.2.10        Adequacy of Fire Service Station in the estate                            58

4.11           Adequacy of Petrol Filling Station in the estate                           58

4.12           Adequate Learning Institutes in the estate.                                  59

4.13           Adequacy of Recreational Facilities in the Estate.                       59

4.14           Adequacy of Water Supply in the neighbourhood.                      60

4.15           Adequacy of Electricity Supply in the neighbourhood.               60

4.16           Adequacy of Road Networks in the neighbourhood.                  61

4.17           Adequacy of Telephone Service in the neighbourhood.               61

4.18           Adequacy of Fire Service Station in the neighbourhood.            62

4.19           Adequacy of Petrol Filling Station in the neighbourhood            62

4.20           Adequacy of Learning Institute in the neighbourhood.               63

4.21           Adequacy of Recreational Facilities in the neighbourhood.         63

4.22           Period of ownership in the estate.                                                64

4.23           Rent review of the respondents.                                                   65

4.24           Interest subsisting from the property                                            66

4.25           Housing units owned.                                                                   67

4.26           Management practice in the estate.                                               68

4.27          Adequacy of rental value in the estate compared with similar      69       

                 property in the    neighbourhood

4.28           Tenant/Landlord association within the estate.                            70

4.29           Maintenance of the estate.                                                                        71

4.30           Successful factors affecting the estate                                         71-72

4.31           Relationship between public and private housing schemes.         73

4.32           Problems confronting public housing scheme in Lagos.               74

4.33           Position held in the firm                                                               75

4.34           Educational Qualification                                                             76

4.35           Years of practicing                                                                        77

4.36           Relationship between public & private housing sector                 78

4.37           LSDPC ability to meet housing demands in Lagos                      79

4.38           Problem confronting LSDPC in housing provision                      80

4.39           Existing relationship between tenant and landlord                      81

4.40           Clients (landlord/tenants/agent) problematic?                              82

4.41           Causes of clients problems                                                            83

4.42           Effect of housing finance on housing provision.                          84

4.43           Cost of building material influence on public housing                 84

                  provision.                                                                                     

4.44           Interest rate influence on public housing provisions                    85

4.45           Ease of land acquisition influence on public housing                   85       

                  provision.

4.46           Influence of government policy on housing provision                 86

4.47           Influence of mortgage institutions operation on housing             86

                  provision

4.48           Development of low cost housing influences housing                 87

                  provision.

4.49           Private sector partnership influence on housing provision.           87

4.50           Influence of site and service scheme on housing provision.         88

4.51           Effect of accessibility on property value (rental).                         88

4.52           Effect of complementary uses on property value (rental)             89

4.53           Effect of location on property value (rental value)                       89

4.54           Rate of return effects on property value (rental)                          90

4.55           Property condition influence on property value.                          90

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                        Pages

                                                                                                                         

4.1             Period of Occupancy                                                                    51

4.2             Type of Accommodation available                                               52

4.3            Satisfactory level of accommodation.                                           53

4.4             Rental income of properties.                                                         54

4.5             Willingness to pay higher rent if facilities are improved              55

 

4.22           Period of ownership in the estate.                                                64

4.23           Rent review of the respondents.                                                   65

4.24           Interest subsisting from the property                                            66

4.25           Housing units owned.                                                                   67

4.26           Management practice in the estate.                                               68

4.27          Adequacy of rental value in the estate compared with similar      69       

                 property in the    neighbourhood

4.28           Tenant/Landlord association within the estate.                            70

4.30           Successful factors affecting the estate                                         71-72

4.31           Relationship between public and private housing schemes.         73

4.32           Problems confronting public housing scheme in Lagos.               74

4.33           Position held in the firm                                                               75

4.34           Educational Qualification                                                             76

4.35           Years of practicing                                                                        77

4.36           Relationship between public & private housing sector                 78

4.37           LSDPC ability to meet housing demands in Lagos                      79

4.38           Problem confronting LSDPC in housing provision                      80

4.39           Existing relationship between tenant and landlord                      81

4.40           Clients (landlord/tenants/agent) problematic?                              82

4.41           Causes of clients problems                                                            83

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.1       INTRODUCTION

Housing is the process of providing a large number of residential buildings on a permanent basis in the adequate physical infrastructural and social services in planned, decent, safe and sanitary neighborhoods to meet the basic and spatial need of the population.

Housing can also be simply described as the provision of habitable shelter in a decent environment for human beings.

 

Housing is also seen as a right because of its importance in ensuring protection, safety and meeting the physiological and psychological aspiration of the people irrespective of age, sex, race, religion or any other means into which people in the world over could be differentiated.

 

One of the greatest challenges facing metropolitan Lagos is housing. The considerable gap between supply and demand has found expression in the astronomical cost of rental value on dwellings. Overcrowding, slums and substandard housing are expression of this problem. Prior to 1928, before the government declared the provision of public housing in the Third National Development Plan 1975 -80, planned residential areas in Lagos was limited thereby resulted to an increase in both rental and capital value of available dwellings. These led to the emergence, in 1928, of the pioneer planning authority in Nigeria, the Lagos Executive Development Board (LEDB), which embarked on slum clearance and the relocation of families from the Island to the mainland at surulere. Since then, the activities of planning authorities have assumed considerable importance in metropolitan Lagos.

 

In the provision of sufficient housing delivery by the government, the government established in 1956 the Ikeja Area Planning Authority (IAPA), to control development in the part of the metropolis outside the then Federal Capital Territory. In 1958, the Western Nigeria Housing Corporation was created by the former Western Region government with the responsibility of providing housing finance for the execution of housing schemes.

 

In 1972, the Lagos Executive Development Board (LEDB), the IAPA, and the Epe Town planning Authority were merged together to form the Lagos State Development and Property Corporation (LSDPC) to stimulate greater efficiency and eliminate delay, waste and duplication of responsibilities in the housing sector. The houses built by some of these authorities include the LSDPC low income housing and medium income housing (1979) and the Surulere housing scheme provided by the Lagos Executive Development Board (LEDB) 1955 -1975.

 

Nevertheless, the problem persists mostly because of rapid population growth, also because of the introduction of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) in 1986, and the three fold increase in price of petroleum fuel in 1994. Also, the Federal Government housing programme for Lagos, which was launched in 1994 under the National Housing Scheme, has stalled, among other reasons because of the spiraling cost of building materials etc. had made the provision of housing scheme insufficient for the public thereby constituting a great effect on the value of existing dwellings.

 

The focus of the study is therefore to examine those factors that determine the rental value (to be precise) of the selected scheme in Lagos as it will be compared with similar properties in the neighbourhood.

 

 

1.2       STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

The housing problem in this country has always attracted a lot of attention in government’s social and economical planning policies. Studies of different types are often carried out on the subject both government and non-governmental agencies and institutions.

 

Large scale public participation in providing housing has always been advocated as a vital means of alleviating the housing problem as housing particularly for the low income group, has hardly ever been able to complete adequately with other forms of investment in attracting capital from the private sector of the economy.

 

The need for government to provide housing as part of essential social services has already been well emphasized and recognized. But the issues that have not been appreciated are the nature and form of government participation in term of:

 

What form of housing? For whom? In what location? But due to the degree and urgency of the problem, attention on the issue has very often been concentrated on the question of providing as many housing units, as quickly and in as many locations as is financially and physically feasible.

 

The co-ordination, implementation and management of various housing projects have absorbed so much efforts that little attention has been spared for equally important issue of studying and reflecting on and evaluating the implications, results or deficiencies of current policies. It has been suggested that on the question of cost, location and qualities of housing for the low income majority of city residents in Lagos, the approach so far has been elitist and largely irrelevant and even detrimental due to the fact that efforts have been “project oriented rather than problem oriented” which has presently resulted to reduction in value of most public housing. It therefore, necessary at this stage to study and scientifically evaluate the effect of the already executed schemes as a means of more effective application of past and present schemes on property value.

 

1.3       AIM AND OBJECTIVES

The aim of the study is broadly to find out the effect of public housing scheme on property value, a case study of Lagos metropolis.

The above can be achieved by the following objectives;

i.                    To determine the factors that affect property value in Iponri housing estate.

ii.                 To examine the public housing schemes that is, Iponri Housing Estate Surulere on property values.

iii.               To analyse the correlation between public and private housing schemes.

iv.               To find out the problems confronting the public housing schemes in Lagos metropolis.

v.                  To proffer way forward in the gray area of housing on property values.

 

 

1.4       RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

 

H0: The public housing scheme has significant effect on property value.

 

H1: The public housing scheme has no significant effect on property value.

 

 

 

1.5       SCOPE OF STUDY

The study is limited to the effect of public housing schemes on property value in Lagos metropolis, a study of Iponri Housing Estate Surulere, Lagos.

To examine how this scheme has reduced or increased the rental value of similar units within the neighborhood.

 

1.6       SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

This work will serve as a data bank for researchers and students working on similar project. Any problem identified in the study area with relevant suggestions could be used as a means of treating similar cases in other parts of Lagos State.

Finally, the findings could lead to further studies in related areas by other researchers in the future.

           

1.7       LIMITATIONS OF STUDY

The following serves as limitation in the process of procuring the necessary data and information:

1        Financial constraint which directly and indirectly affect the dissertation of the pertinent information and data.

2        Inavailability of necessary research materials such as textbooks, journals, e.t.c and where they are available, they are inaccessible.

3        Also, the literacy and illiteracy level of the occupiers in the selected scheme may be a form of hindrance for data collection when having a personal interview with them.

4        Low rate of response gotten from the questionnaire administered due to the unwillingness of the respondents to diverge all necessary information to assist the dissertation.

5        The bureaucratic nature or process involved in obtaining information from the residents within the area of study and relevant data needed from the government agencies and the professional Estate Surveyors.

 

 

1.8       DEFINITION OF TERM   

1.                  HOUSING: Is the process of providing large number of residential building on a permanent basis in the adequate physical infrastructure and social services in planned, decent, safe and sanitary neighbourhood.

2.                  PUBLIC HOUSING: Refers to the government effort in making land available for housing schemes to be delivered to the individual.

3.                  PROPERTY: This is the exclusive right of possessing, enjoying and disposing of a thing. It is also refers to as a “bundle of rights”

4.                  PROPERTY VALUE: This is the worth of an interest in land and landed properties or claim on chattels assessed by appropriate valuation methods.

5.                  SCHEMES: These are activities undertaken either by the government or individuals to enhance the value of the neighbourhood or property so as to meet the changes in demand of the society

6.                  DEVELOPMENT: This is defined as the carrying out of building, engineering mining or other operations in, on, over or under the land or the making of any material changes in the use of any building or other land.

7.                  RESIDENTIAL PROPERTY: Can be described as building that provides accommodation to its dwellers. It protects its inhabitants against environmental hardship such as weather effect and rainfall.

8.                  VALUE: This is an estimated price that would be achieved if property or other articles were to be sold in the open market.             

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

REFERENCES

 

Bello. I, Olajide. S. (2003): A Hand Book of Estate Management. Abeokuta,

Campus Publications Ltd.

 

Barlowe Raleigh  (1958): Land Resources Economics- The Economics of Real

Property. Prentice Hall Inc. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

 

George Vincent (1997): The Public and Private Sector Partnership in Housing.

Journal of  The Housing Corporation of Nigeria (AHCN) Vol. 1, P.8.

 

Olusegun G.K. (2003): General Principles and Practice of Property Valuation.

(Volume One), Lagos, Climax Communication Ltd.

 

Oyebanji A.O. (2003): Principles of Land Economics. Mushin, Lagos. Sam Uto

Nigeria Co.     


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