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Product Code: 00000611

No of Pages: 76

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Past studies have shown that the important determinant of residential housing satisfaction is its location in term of distance to the Central Business District (CBD) or major roads, ignoring the characteristics of the house and the environment in which the house is located. Therefore, this study examines the extent to which residential housing satisfaction are determined by the housing structural, environmental and socio-economic attributes.

To conduct this research, the study adopted a survey design whereby 303 buildings were selected for the questionnaire administration. Using multi-stage sampling techniques, the study area was first identified and classified into zones, and buildings selected according to their types by simple random in the second stage. In the third stage, streets were selected in the chosen zones based on their conditions and finally questionnaires were systematically administered on the households in the selected building types of the classified zones for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive (frequency, mean etc) and inferential (regression analysis) techniques.

The results of the stepwise regression analysis showed that building type (R2 =0.132, P< 0.05), Floor material type (R2 =0.109, P< 0.05), number of gated streets (R2 =0.089, P< 0.05) and security type (R2 =0.112, P< 0.05) are the most important determinant of the Residential housing satisfaction.

The conclusion is that housing structural and neighbourhood attributes are more important factors that explain variations in residential housing satisfaction than the location factors.

Therefore, it is recommended that government emphasis should be on provision of affordable bungalow buildings with plastered floors where there are no gated streets but must have effective vigilante security system.






TITLE PAGE                                                                                                

CERTIFICATION                                                                                         ii

DEDICATION                                                                                               iii        

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                                             iv        

ABSTRACT                                                                                                   v                    

TABLE CONTENTS                                                                                    vi

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                       ix

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                         x



1.0       Introduction                                                                                        1      

1.1       Background of Study                                                                          1

1.2       Statement of Research Problems                                                        2

1.3       Aim and Objectives                                                                             3

1.3.1    Aim                                                                                                      3

1.3.2    Objectives                                                                                            4

1.3.3    Test of Hypothesis                                                                               4

1.4       Scope of Study                                                                                     4

1.5       Justification of Study                                                                           4

1.6       Study Area                                                                                           5



2.0       Literature Review and Conceptual Framework                                    11

2.1       Literature Review                                                                                 11

2.1.1    Household and Housing Attributes                                                      11

2.1.2    Low Cost Housing                                                                                12

2.1.3    Structural Characteristics of Low-Cost Housing                                  13

2.1.4    Neighbourhood Characteristics of Low-Cost Housing                         16

2.1.5    Affordable Housing                                                                               17

2.1.6    Housing Delivery in Nigeria                                                                 19

2.1.7    Housing in Lagos State                                                                          22

2.1.8    Public Housing Delivery in Lagos State                                                27

2.1.9    History of Federal Low-Income Housing Estate Ipaja, Alimosho         29

2.2       Conceptual and Theoretical Framework                                                 31

2.2.1    Alonso's Bid Rent Function Theory - Thayer (2008)                             31

2.2.2    Hedonic Price Model                                                                              33         



3.0       Research Methodology                                                                            38

3.1       Data Sources                                                                                            38

3.2       Sample Frame and Size                                                                            39

3.3       Sampling Procedures and Techniques                                                     40

3.4       Method of Data Analysis                                                                         42



4.0       DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION                               43

4.1       Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Respondents                               43

4.2       Housing Characteristics in the Zones of the Estate                                  45

4.3       Environmental Characteristics in the Zones of the Estate                        49

4.4       Variations in Rental values in the Zones of the Estate                             53

4.5       Socio-Economic Attributes, Housing Chacteristics, Neighbourhood Characteristics and Annual Rental Values                                                                   54

4.6      Estimating Effects of Socio-Economic Attributes, Housing and

            Neighbourhood Characteristics on Housing Satisfaction                          58




5.1       Summary of Major Findings                                                                       64

5.2       Conclusion                                                                                                  64

5.3       Recommendations                                                                                      65

Appendix                                                                                                                66

References                                                                                                              69








LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                                 PAGE

FIG 1.1       Map of Nigeria showing Lagos State                                                    7

FIG 1.2       Map of Lagos State showing Alimosho Local Government Area          8

FIG 1.3        Map of Shagari Low-Cost Housing Estate showing the distribution

                   of houses in the zones                                                                              9

FIG 4.1      Apartment occupied by the Respondent                                                 48







LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                   PAGE

TABLE 2.1          Planned Housing Schemes in Metropolitan Lagos                        24

TABLE 3.1          Distribution of buildings in zones in Shagari Low-Cost

                             Housing Estate, Ipaja Lagos                                                          40

TABLE 3.2          Distribution of Buildings in the Study Area                                 41

TABLE 4.1.1       Respondents according to the Residential Zones                          43

TABLE 4.1.2       Gender of the Respondent                                                            43

TABLE 4.1.3       Age of the Respondent                                                                  44

TABLE 4.1.4       Marital Status of the Respondent                                                  44

TABLE 4.1.5       Educational Level of the Respondent                                           44

TABLE 4.1.6       Occupation of the Respondent                                                      45

TABLE 4.1.7       Income per month of the Respondent                                           45

TABLE 4.2.1       Type of Building                                                                            46

TABLE 4.2.2       Roof Material of the Respondent                                                  46

TABLE 4.2.3       Wall Material of the Respondent                                                   47

TABLE 4.2.4       Floor Material Type                                                                       47

TABLE 4.2.5       Approximate Age of Building                                                       47

TABLE 4.2.6       Types of Residential Apartment                                                    48

TABLE 4.2.7       Type of Apartment Occupied by the Respondents                       49

TABLE 4.2.8       Number of Households in the Building                                         49

TABLE 4.3.1       Number of Gated Streets                                                               49

TABLE 4.3.2       Type of Security                                                                            50

TABLE 4.3.3       Accessibility of Playground                                                           50

TABLE 4.3.4       Access Road Condition                                                                 51

TABLE 4.3.5       Drainage Type                                                                                51

TABLE 4.3.6       Drainage Condition                                                                       52

TABLE 4.3.7       Waste Disposal Method                                                                 52

TABLE 4.3.8       Building Condition                                                                                    52

TABLE 4.3.9       Environmental Condition                                                              53

TABLE 4.3.10      Quality of the Residence                                                              53

TABLE 4.4.1        Annual Rental Values                                                                   53

TABLE 4.5.1        Socio-Economic Attributes and Rental Values                            55

TABLE 4.5.2        Housing Characteristics and Rental Values                                  56

TABLE 4.5.3        Neighbourhood Characteristics and Rental Value                       57

TABLE 4.6.1        Definition of Variables in the Regression Analysis                      59

TABLE 4.6.2        Multiple Regression Analysis: Housing Satisfaction                   60

TABLE 4.6.3         Stepwise Regression Analysis: Housing Satisfaction                  61






The availability and quality of housing has a significant impact on people's lives, affecting choices of work and transport needs, as well as the quality of life. With rates of household formation continuing to increase, housing demand stimulated by the buy-to-let market, and housing supply remaining largely static, there are significant shortages of suitable housing in areas of population pressure. (Davis & Everest, 2004). Market forces in housing are complex, driven by incomes and house prices, demographics and social change, and economic factors including employment and consumer confidence. Despite rising prices, the supply of new housing into areas of high demand has not increased significantly. House building is a high risk enterprise and developers will take a conservative approach, in order to avoid being exposed to a falling market.

In Lagos State, house developers are faced with challenges like constraints on the supply of land, house builders and limited development capability in terms of finance and management resources. The dense mixed-tenure schemes promoted by planning policy and the need to optimize land value are more complex to develop, particularly in terms of planning, design and relationships with local authorities. Finance requirements are also greater, with significant upfront investment in construction not being recovered until relatively late in the development programme, further constraining development capacity. These constraints have affected the provision of low-cost housing estate for the residents of Lagos State. Provision of low-cost housing estates considers their closeness to the shopping centres (Opoku and Abdul-Muhmin, 2010). It pays proper attention to the management of support and public facilities to enhance residential satisfaction of the inhabitants and also adopt a policy to build different sizes of units to cater the needs of residents with large families in order to enhance quality of life of low-income urban community in the country.

This research study will provide an assessment of public low-cost housing provision in Lagos State. The focus of the study is on determining what is actually required to have adequate supply of low-cost housing that is affordable and give resident’s satisfaction, with dwelling unit support services, followed by public and neighbourhood facilities than dwelling unit features and social environment. Findings from a study by (Mohammad, Mansor & Yong 2010) on the assessment of residential satisfaction in newly designed public low-cost housing in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia revealed that residential satisfaction index like improved security management control, perimeter roads and proper waste management system has high positive correlations with dwelling unit features, social environment, support services and public facilities, and low positive correlation with neighbourhood facilities. Socio-economic attributes of the residents such as age, family size, working wives, previous residence are negatively correlated with residential satisfaction, whereas residents' race, employment type, floor level and length of residency are positively correlated with residential satisfaction.

1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEMS                                        

Residential satisfaction of public low-cost housing is enhanced through improving the management of security control, perimeter roads and proper waste management system. Despite the importance in low-cost housing delivery in Lagos State, there appears to be no framework within which this objective will be achieved. This development has caused emergence of informal city within Lagos metropolis due to incessant increase in population. The adoption of real estate is a counter-measure against the spread of the informal city in Lagos. The experience of Lagos in terms of urbanization can be compared to that of Mexico City with a population of nearly 18milliom inhabitants (Hamilton, 2006).  Although, Mexico city is reputed to have emerged as a major global services provider in accounting, advertising, banking, finance and legal services.

The resultant effects of insufficient low-cost housing are slum settlements and informal areas of Lagos megacity. These poor urban dwellers have little access to urban land and therefore the attributes become squatters, living in shanty houses that are constructed from materials that are low-cost and hazardous e.g. bamboo, straw and polythene. Sijuwade (2008) describes other groups of urban poor as people who are used to living in single roomed housing. He claimed that more than five members of the households live in one congested room.

The study by (Mohammad, Mansor & Yong 2010) on the assessment of residential satisfaction in Malaysia has shown determinants of residential satisfaction. Therefore, this study will examine the extent to which residents’ satisfactions are determined by the structural, environmental and socio-economic attributes. This study will give answers to the following research questions;

i.  How does structural and neighbourhood attributes influence residential satisfaction in the study area?

ii. Do the structural, neighbourhood and socio-economic attributes influence the rental value in the study area?


1.3.1    AIM                                                                                                 

The aim of the study is to assess the relative importance of structural, neighbourhood and socio-economic attributes as determinants of residents’ satisfaction in Shagari low-cost housing estate in Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State.




The objectives are to;

1.        Determine the socio-economic characteristics of the low-cost housing residents in Lagos State.

2.        Examine the structural and neighbourhood attributes of the houses in the study area.

3.        Examine the level of satisfaction of the residents to the rent paid in the study area.

4.        Examine whether the rents paid are determined by the structural, neighbourhood and socio-economic attributes.

5.        Examine the policy implication of the findings for public low-cost housing provision.


HoRental value is not significantly determined by the structural, neighbourhood and socio-economic attributes of housing.

HiRental value is significantly determined by the structural, neighbourhood and socio-economic attributes of housing.,


1.4       SCOPE OF STUDY

This study will consider structural, neighbourhood and socio-economic attributes of low cost housing in Lagos State. The study will be carried-out on public low-cost housing estate at Shagari Housing Estate, Ipaja, Alimosho Local Government Area of Lagos State. It will cover the following low cost housing attributes; the building materials, location, neighbourhood characteristics, residents’ characteristics, dwelling units, rental value and dwelling unit features.



Data from this study will give structural, neighbourhood and socio-economic attributes of low-income housing as it will enable proper classification of housing types. This study will reveal challenges facing the adequate provision of low-cost housing estate (materials, location and administration). It will also relate which of these attributes is more important in the residents’ satisfaction.

1.6       STUDY AREA

Shagari Estate was a Federal Low-Income Housing Scheme established by the Federal Government during the First Republic by Alhaji Shehu Shagari between 1979 and 1981. It was originally meant to provide accommodation for the low income earners who were then predominantly artisans, craftsmen, and junior civil servants amongst others. Construction works for the Estate started in 1980 and was allocated to the target group (the low income earners) through a ballot system between 1982 and 1983. The Estate is located at Ipaja in Alimosho Local Government Council Area which was then in the outskirts of the city. It is divided into 4 zones, all properly networked into each other.

Alimosho Local Government Area is located on the North-West of Lagos State. Which itself is situated at the south-western part of Nigeria, West Africa on the narrow coastal plain of the Bight of Benin. The Local Government covers land area of about 300 (9km2) and has a growing population of over 3-4 million people/inhabitants. It shares borders with the following local governments; Agege, Ifako-Ijaiye, Ikeja, Oshodi-Isolo, Amuwo-Odofin and Ojo.  Lagos State is one of the 36 states that constitute the Federal Republic of Nigeria. It extends approximately from latitude 6°2'N to 6°4'N, and from longitude 2°45'East to 4°20'East. Out of its total area of 3,, about 787sq. km. or 22 percent is water. The state is located on the South-Western part of Nigeria with the southern boundary of the state framed by about 180 kilometres along Atlantic coastline while the northern and eastern boundaries are framed by Ogun State. The Republic of Benin formed the western boundary. The state is the smallest state in Nigeria in land area with an area of about 358,861 hectares or 3577 (Odumosu, 1999). This represents only 0.4 percent of the entire area of Nigeria. This size accommodates about 10 percent of the entire140 million approximate population of the Nigeria. The state is also the most urbanized in Nigeria (Ayeni, 1979). Only about 5 per cent of the state total population live in rural areas. This has serious consequences on land use planning in the state especially in urban areas. It also has great implication on infrastructure. Ironically except for Abuja, Lagos stands out to be the best served with infrastructural facilities in Nigeria yet it is where these facilities are most inadequate due to the high population density. The state is also the most affluent in spite of its small size.

Lagos metropolis lies generally on low lands, with about 18782 hectares of built-up area. The approximate population of this area is more than 18 million. The projected average population density of the built-up area of Lagos metropolis is about 20,000 people per square kilometre in an emerging African Megacity. Two dominant religious groups in Lagos are Christians which constitute, about 54.6%, while the Muslims constitute about 44.33% (Odumosu, 1999). The balance of 1.1% represents the percentage population of other religious groups. According to the Master Plan for Metropolitan Lagos (MPML) the urban land use was approximately 172 square kilometres in 1985. (Master Plan for Metropolitan Lagos, 1985). Current land use distribution of Lagos shows that residential areas occupied about 9669 hectares (52.1%) of the total built-up area of the city.

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