The study will
Centre on the traditional political system of Oka - Akoko people in Akoko South
West Ondo State. It will throw more light on the system from the precolonial era.
secondary data were used as a method to gather detailed information for the
study, primary data comprise of oral sources and traditions from generation to another involving the
researchers personal observation as an eye witness accounts. A survey was,
carried out based on certain numbers of people and places through a selective
interview Oka- Akoko.
data like historical text books, magazine, thesis and Journals etc. Historical
method which comprise the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to
research, were used to analyze the data collected. It is a field of research,
which uses, narrative and descriptive to examine and evaluate the stages of
event in Oka Akoko.
The study revealed
that Oka Akoko is one of ancient cities in the course of human history and
Endeavour with major historical land marks in the map of Nigeria history. The
results examined the positive and negative impacts of the political system on
the socio- Economic history of the Oka - Akoko people.
importance in the making of modem and civilized Nigeria especially in the area
of religion, Education and tourism.
The project also
examined the origin migrations and settlement pattern in a Akoko, secondly the
research gave available evidences to the broader and manifestation of political
division, rivalries, succession disputes, and the relationship between the
traditional rulers and the people making Oka - oko attain the position of Lime
light in Nigeria. The First town to experience political development in the
south west region of Nigeria, and secondly one of the oldest Kingdom in Yoruba
land, with its origin from Ile-Ife migrations.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
to the Study.
1. 2 Statement of the Problem.
1. 3 Aims and Objectives of Study.
1.4 Significance of the Study.
1. 5 Scope of Study.
1. 6 Limitation of Study
1.7 Research Questions.
1. 8 Definition of Terms.
1. 9 Methodology
TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 The Precolonial Era of Oka-Akoko.
2.2 The Political Development since 1890s
2.3 Settlement Patterns and Political Divisions.
2.3.1 Administration of the Town.
Case of 1992
2.4.1 The Roles of Exercised by the District Officer
2.4.2 The Roles
of the Local Governments in the Administration of the Town.
2.5 Some Aspects of Precolonial History of Oka
2.5.1 The Establishment of British Administration in Owo,
THREE: ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF OKA – AJOKO PEOPLE & ECONOMIC, POLITICAL AND
SOCIAL ACTIVITIES. .
3.1 Origin of Akoko people
3.2 Development of Oka Akoko People
3.3 The Economy of Oka Akoko
3.4 Polities of Oko Akoko
3.5 Socio – Cultural Heritage
IMPACTS OF THE SYSTEM ON THE PEOPLE
Impacts on the Politics (positive)
Economic Impacts (positive)
Notes & References
CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
According to Olukoju
(2011) says: Oka lies on latitude 7O28” North and Longitude 5050" past. It is
about 90km North East of Akure, the Ondo State Capital. Its neighbours are
Epinmi and Upe in the East, Akungba in the west, Ikare in the north and Oba in
the south, Oke-Oka the major Oka settlement located some 400 meters above sea
level, is perched on, the highest peak in Akoko land which is itself, "the
hilliest and most rugged part of Yoruba land", The area is well endowed
with rainfall and the vegetation is mainly rainforest though the soil,
especially at Oke-Oka, is generally granitic.
Kolawole (2009). The traditions
of origins and migrations of the Akoko have been described as vague and indefinite
probably, because every town, with the possible exception of Oka, was conquered
by or submitted to the Nupe or Tapa of Bida, Nonetheless, these traditions
claim Ile-Ife, Benin, Akoko-Edo (Kukuruku) and Yagba origins for the Akoko
people. One could explain the diversity of origins as reflected in the
tradition in terms of the topography of Akoko, which made the area an ideal meeting
place for diverse peoples and cultures from the west, east and north. This is
diversity is reflected in the dialectal plurality in the area, Yoruba is,
however, the main language.
Olukoju (2011) says
that Oka was a kingdom consisting
of fifteen Chiefdoms. These chiefdoms now called "quarters"
were subdivided into two wards - Ogban Asin (better known as Siru) and Ogban Olusin
(Sifa). The first, under Ebo and Ebinrin (which constituted the Siru
subsections of this Ogban) and Ibaka, Ikese, Korowa, and Okia (The Sirin
subsection headed by the Olubaka of Ibaka). The second, Ogban Olusin, comprised
Iboje, Idofin, Owaase and Owalusi (in one subsection under the Olusin), while
Agba and Ikanmui formed another subsection under the, Alagba. The overall
Leadership of the ogban was vested in the Olusin of Owalusin,
Kolawole (2009): The traditional
explanation for these groupings is that chief chiefdoms of quarters in one
Ogban were the children of the same father, while children of the same mother
formed the constituent subsections.
diversity of origins of the Oka people, this seems to be a rationalization of
relationships forged by co-migrations, geographical proximity, and more social
interaction or shared vicissitudes, It is instructive that these groupings are
named after the number of their members,
Erun (five) in Siru; Eerin (four) in Sirin, and Efatsi) in Sifa.
However, the fact that the groupings have not been
based on mere territorial contiguity has ensured that they are not divisive,
factors in Oka politics.
Adewunmi (2008) says that: Most of the fifteen
chiefdoms or quarters of Oka in turn had subdivisions. Sometimes, as in Agba,
Oke-Ikanmu and Oka-Odo, the quarter chief was also the head of Odooju and the
Olokia, the head of Isaba. The quarter chief was assisted in the administration
by a council of elders (Ihare) and the general council of youths which comprised
age-grades from 18years to 60 years. The council of elders which was headed by
the eldest man in the community (Opan) administered the chiefdom or quarter during an interregnum, the
village assembly (Apejo) provided forum for discussing affairs of the community
and its decisions were binding on the members. The age-graders (Etu or Egbe)
executed such decisions, maintained law and order, constructed of cleared
footpaths which led to other settlements and the farmlands and maintained the
community's sources of drinking water. The age grade between
fifty years and sixty years was a link-between the, .younger ones and the Ihare. It supervised the execution of
communal decisions, it was known as in
Agba, Ela in Ibaka, Akala in Ikanmu arid Egbe in Iroho (Okia) .Akomolaje
(2008) says that: Administration at the level of, the town was federal,
with a large measure of autonomy at the level of the, chiefdom. Indeed the
quarter chiefs were addressed as Kabiyesi, the normal honorific for kings.
Consequently, a council comprising the Asin, of Oka- Odo, the quarter chiefs
and, at critical times, co-opted community leaders administrated Oka. The
extent of the powers of the "Leader" or paramount ruler is unknown,
but apart from occasionally "raiding" the market, he did not exercise
absolute or dictatorial powers. In any case, the council of chiefs, the elders
and the Ifa oracle made the appointment of the ruler. The power of the chiefs
in this exercise was demonstrated, as
we have seen, in the case of the Olubaka Olategbon Omowa II in 1936.
In the even of an interregnum, the Olusin of Owalusin acted as regent has been the case since the demise of Oba
Omowa II in 1992.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Akoko is a large
North East Yoruba settlement in Yoruba land, the area spans from Ondo State to Edo State in South west
Nigeria. Akoko takes a large percentage
of the Local Governments in Ondo
State. Out of the present 18 Local
Government council it takes four, Akoko North East, Akoko North-West, Akoko
South-West, Adekunle Ajasin University, a State owned University, is located in
Akungba-Akoko. A state specialist Hospital is
at Ikare-Akoko, while a general hospital is located-in Oka- Akoko.
Despite all the attributes the community has faced
so many challenges from the past till 2011.
The Rivalry between the paramount Ruler and a High Chief
Succession disputes among the quarters Chiefs Territorial
disputes and boundary settlements, between, Oka and her Neighbours.'
Negligence of Natural Resources and Agricultural products
Corruption, crimes and wars between Oka and other towns.
No regard for Tourist Attraction, which made the
inhabitants lack behind in the preservation of cultural heritage.
The sole aim of this study is to examine the
developments that have taken place in the transitional political organization
in Oka-Akoko South West of Ondo State,
and more so to investigate the principal actors in the political system and
structures in the region, Thus, suggested possible method will be used by the
researchers to go deep into the political pillars that have long been existing
in the area. Also it is the desire of the researcher to look into the succession
disputes, rivalries in the political system, the role played by the local government
council, the customary law court and the challenges facing the entire cabinet
of the paramount ruler.
This Essay will enable the inhabitants and my fellow
students to have the deep knowledge and the opportunities to be acquitted with the fact that a political organization
has long been existing before the post-colonial era, and to ensure that the
organization faced so many challenges.
Also, to shed more light on the roles and
responsibilities exhibited by the political cabinets and roles played by the
people within the vicinity in relating with the system, furthermore, in
securing a peaceful environment, the essay will encourage the people of
Oka-Akoko South-west the right answer to the problems of their community,
observing strictly the bye-laws without waiting for supervision and
co-operation of the leaders. Above all individual must be able to be the watch
joy of himself or herself ensuring that the town becomes developed and extends to
a higher level.
1.5 SCOPE GF STUDY.
Although, there are not less than Two hundred
Thousand people in Oka- Akoko South West local government area of Ondo State, but this study mainly focuses on few people
and about five places whose Selection is carefully made, potting into consideration
some variables, such States, Location, Time, Age and experiences in those
places and people. It is hoped that the
limiting factors would not affect the geniuses of the outcome of the study.
1.6 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The research study normally should have covered a
wide field of Akoko’ South West to make for representative study. However, it is limited to Oka-Akoko so as to minimize transportation and communication problems
and other unforeseen difficulties. However lack of fund, insufficient, materials
and inadequate or all tradition may be part of the challenges the research work
will be facing. It is hoped that the identified problems will not adversely
affect the outcome of the research study.
Sequentially, the research work shall dwell much on
the effect of the challenges facing the political structure, developments and
peace the aforementioned area.
1.7 RESEARCH QUESTUONS.
The following questions are formulated to guide the
investigations on the developments in the political organization.
Where is the
present palace located?
Was the paramount ruler (the king) recognized with is
c. Was there any duty Assigned to
the local government in terms of Administration?
d. What are the roles of the
districts officers and were they recognized?
e. Was the customary law court in use?
f. Why is the oponship title
restricted to Owalusin Alone? :
g. Why does the council of elders
possess absolute power than the Paramount Ruler?
h. Has there been any Rivalry between
the Asin of Oka-Odo and the paramount Ruler? The Ruler?
j. Did the late General Ramat
Muritala Muhammed actually criminate into the creation of Akoko South local
government with Oka?
During the course of research and to further
comprehend the research topic under discussion, the following terms are defined
OGBAN: The quarter
which consists offsite chiefdoms, which was later subdivided into two wards.
OGBAN ASIN: The first group
that emerged during the division consisting of five communities and later known
and culminated into nine communities.
OGBAN OLUSIN: The second
group that emerged during the division consisting of six communities and later
known as "SIFA".
OWALUSIN: The overall leader of the ogban (The Chiefdom quarters) Regent.
IHARE: They assisted
in the administration of the quarter chief, general council of youths, which
comprised age-grades from 18years- 60years.
OPAN: They serve as
Judges in the customary law court. They are the head of the council of elders,
the oldest man in the community is the only person entitled to the post.
APEJO: A place where
public opinions are raised, is cussed and settled, also known as the village
assembly, where its decisions were binding on the members
ETU OR EGBE: Are the ones
executing such decisions, maintained Law and order, constructed or cleared
footpaths which led to other settlements and the farmlands and maintained the
community’s source of drinking water.
KABIYESI: Also known as
the Asin of Oka-Odo, which consisted of the ones executing such decision unmaintained
law and order, constructed or cleared footpaths which led to other settlements
and the farmlands and maintained the community's source of dirking water.
KABlYESI: Also known as
the Asin of Oka-Odo, which consisted of the quarter chiefs, the normal
honorific if for kings.
IGIA: They are
assigned a crucial role in the 'coronation of an olubaka.
IBAKA: The chosen and
most suitable place for the administrative head office
OLUBAKA: the paramount Ruler
who was later recognized.
UDE OR EDULA: The second her
of administration in the council of elders. These are those who just graduated
from the lower ranks, the age of graduation was between 70 and 75 years.
EMBA: This is the
lowest unit being occurred recognition' by the community and can be represented
by a title or non-title head;
This work relies heavily on the use of primary and
secondary sources. The primary sources are in form of oral interviews, while
the secondary sources can notes the use of several Literature such as books,
magazines, Journals, newspaper,
academic works, internet search and, available oral traditions;
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