No matter how plural a society may be, the radio should be
the engineering force and vehicle for conveying political message to the women
in the democratization process in which man is the pivot, it is with this
background that the objectives of this study re-channeled towards metropolis
for their participation in politics.
The work examined factors such as medium, interpersonal
communication, exposure objectivity and sycophancy to clear. Curtly determine
the effective impact of the radio political news in mobilizing women in Enugu metropolis.
Useful theories and the literature that constitute the
basic framework of the study were examined.
An empirical survey was carried out in four selected zones
metropolis. Data collected were analyzed in order to determine the effects of
these factors on the efficacy of the radio political messages in mobilizing the
Empirical evidence from findings revealed that the radio
political information ha been the engineering mechanism in mobilizing women in
Enugu metropolis, it wakes up their political opinion and attitude, it leads
them to political opinion formation and although they did not see the news
being non-objective but they indicated that the government and its agencies
distort the news.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page II
Approval page III
Table of contents VIII
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study 1
Statement of the research problem 8
Objectives of the study 13
Significance of the study 15
Research questions 16
Research hypothesis 17
Conceptual and operational definitions 19
Limitations of the study 22
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW
OF THE LITERATURE 25
Research design 33
Research sample 34
Measuring instrument 35
Data analysis 37
Expected results 37
Data analysis 39
Result of the hypothesis tested 43
SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY
Recommendation for further study 52
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Radio is a vital force for social change through public
enlightenment. It exists because people must communicate with one another.
Communication is the activity by which people pursue the exchange of idea- an
exchange that we pursue continuously throughout our lives. Basically, this
exchange is an effort to influence the situations around us. In the light of
the above the background of the study is designed to study the role, which the
radio as a medium of exchange plays in mobilizing women in Enugu metropolis towards active participation
Influencing people through communication is a mutual
activity, that is why after considering other communication channels like
television, interpersonal communication, traditional communication (rituals and
festivals gongs, drums and rites) newspapers and magazines; and in view of how
effective these channels could be used in performing the role of mobilizing of
women in politics; its credibility is given to the radio in injecting political
ideas and awareness into the blood stream of its market audience (women).
The newspaper and magazines for their non-transient
features would have helped but it is found pretty difficult these days to be
affordable by the average Nigeria.
Women in the same vein find if financially tasking to spend their income in
buying newspapers or magazines in the face of the present economic crunch
plaguing the country (Nigeria)
today. Hence, they resort to the radio for information acquisition. Also, the
television due to its high cost is not easily affordable by every family.
Traditional communication is limited to the rural dwellers
only. The urban-based women do not employ gongs and drums in dispersing
information. It becomes pretty ineffective to use traditional communication.
The women in urban centers (Enugu
metropolis) have been socially developed and modern channels of disseminating
information have been developed too. Therefore, they can tune to their various
radio sets for information. Radio as being very vital in this case is due to
its handy or portability which enables women to carry it about to their
offices, business areas and so on, especially the transistor type.
Research embarked upon by Obiakalusi et al (1991)
postulates that Nigerian political independence in 1960 had raised the hopes of
many that the nation was being set towards achieving a free and fair democratic
society. It is expected that the press as a whole and the radio in particular
should be the market place of political ideas suffice it to say that the radio
exists to serve the information needs of the citizenry in politics.
According to Edelstain in his 1974 study about audiences
concluded that the audience evaluated sources of information not in terms of the
sources credibility, newspaper in terms of content, television in breadth of
perception and radio in availability.
The radio, therefore, is readily available and handy to
Another issue of reference is Akpan (1985) mass
communication in Nigeria Book of reading eg (Nwuneli) says that the publics
entitled to all facts in a political situation and that on the basis of these
facts; it can make its decisions. However, these women being informed about
political news tend to revent to political interest.
Also Noelle Neuman (1985) introduction to mass
communication: Agea, Warren, Kenda) says that ‘real life’ is different from
laboratory controlled studies; the media are so ambiguities that it is
difficult for a person to escape a message, repetitive messages have reinforced
impact; and news stories are so much the same that there are few options for
selective perception. However, the media for its agenda-setting role and using
radio to disseminate information repeatedly about politics, these women tend to
be influenced by listening to this repetitive political message. Hence, develop
a proclivity for politics.
Again, Agee, Warren Kendal (1985) also postulate that
radio for its special role as a mobilization channel, made American listeners
to feel the brutal impact of Hitler’s invasion when Hitler demands against
background of historical oratory and Frenzied Nazi Crowd reaction. American
were graved when they heard murrow described war preparation in London, relieved when
Katlendon predicted that Chamberlain Daladier, Muslim and Hitler would find a
peace solution at Munich.
However it was radio that brought to them this sense of personal participation
in what they described was the world’s crisis not merely Europe’s.
The broadcast media as technological devices of mass
communication are established to inform, entertain and educate. These three
basic functions are vital in the democratization process of any nation whether
in a homogeneous or plural society. Therefore, the radio providing
entertainment to its audience especially women in Enugu metropolis sneaks in political messages
to its listeners while it is entertaining them.
The broadcast media in a democratic setting are the
conscience of the nation, the radio especially initiate, sustain and reinforce
democracy. As an information channel, it informs the audience about politics in
which women from part. Also, for its educational function the FRCN Enugu has
mapped out programme time sponsored by Mrs. Florence Ejoor (chairperson Abia
state family support programme) to educate them not to shy away from politics,
but rather to come out enemas to compete with their male counterparts.
Mr. Fedelis Ojielo of ESBS, a commentary writer states
that radio, as one of the electronic media has remained one of the greatest
legacies of post independence in Nigeria. It uses and impacts in
public administration political enlightenment and general development, which
have made it an indispensable tool of information management and mobilization.
He also postulates that from the inception of radio in
Nigeria, more than 45 years ago, it was obvious that government had a clear
vision of establishing more radio stations in different parts of the country
basically for information purposes, especially in engineering women in active
participation in politics.
The setting up of WNBC in Ibadan in 1958 and ENBC in Enugu 1960 awakened the socio-political
consciousness of people especially the women.
The importance of the radio also made the Enugu state broadcasting services (ESBS) to
introduce a political programme tagged “women in politics” which was aimed at
mobilizing women in active participation in politics.
In line with the above, Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe (1965) said
that women should be informed about the political situation in the country and
the need for them to participate in politics. The radio, if skill-fully used
could become a very powerful means of reaching the audience specially the
STATEMENT OF THE
Nigeria Secured independence since 1960, over four
decades. It is time that pre-independence political was under the dictates of
our imperial leaders yet the Nigerian man struggled to be part of the
participate in active politics.
Chief (Mrs.) Ebun
Oyagbola, minister of National planning (1982) in her address to the
intra-parliamentary union meeting. The role of women in Nigeria
politics rightly points out that Aba
women riot 1929 and the activities of a few other women which contributed to
the eventual handing over power to the people will ever be recalled as part of
the engineering landmarks of the drive to political independence by this great
Women are often
relegated to the background on the importance to integrate proper in all facets
of life to enhance their social, political and economic development.
Emphatically, it should be borne in mind and globally acknowledge that a woman
is the moat relevant of the creator’s skill.
An aphorism has it
that “women are weak and yet they weaken the strongest man”. The above implies
that the weakness of women shrouds millions and mountains the will power to
match forward and achieve greatness.
Also, an adage goes
this way “if a good strong woman stands behind her husband, his steps shall
never falter he shall never fall”. Another “Maxim” says behind every successful
man there is a woman. Powerful women were the wheel on which their men rode to
success, fame and acclaim. A case study is that of Abraham Lincoln and his wife
who literally dragged him to the highest poli8tical seat, the United States
presidency and the counseling, but persistent wife of Macbeth the hero of
William Shakespeare’s tragedy: “Macbeth” (Daily star March 30, 1982). Down
through the ages, there has been an example of powerful women. The biblical
Esther who was able to redeem her peoples the Israelites from slavery and
oppression. Queen Elizabeth I of England was one of that nation’s
more capable and popular rulers. Mrs. Margaret Thatchar of Britain and
Mrs. Indian Ghandi of India
are not left out of the list.
Back to Africa, Queen Amina of Zaria, a formidable woman, achieved many
spectacular feats, ruling a vast kingdom and still fondly remembered as a
capable strategist and ruler, (CHIF/MRS.) MARGARET UDO, EKPO, and MRS. FUMLAYO
RANSOME KUTI all played a very important role in Nigeria.
constitution in Nigeria
provides every citizen male or female the right as long as you have attained
the eligible age to vote ad to be voted for. However, the direct opposite was
the case in the past.
In order to make
women grasp a clearer understanding of what 1979 constitution stipulates and
the role women of equal strength have played in politic of past in different
nations of the world. The radio therefore has a reasonable impact on women
primarily considering its immediate and flexibility.
According to Agee
Agult Emery, radio with its peculiar characteristics of being present every
where the mail carrier walks a route with a transistor fastened to the male
bag, the crowd on the beach listen to a singing group: the carpenter on a roof
nails shingles in time, to rock beat. Hence, these women at their various
places be it in the office, market place or shops tune on their transistor
radio sets and with particular attention to radio messages.
Having seen the
history of great women in other nations of the world and the availability of
the radio, the burning questions could be drawn as follows.
Will women in Enugu metropolis after
being expensed to radio political messages muster more interest to participate
in National politics?
Could their exposure
to radio political message activate them to holding political post?
Are they likely to
perceive any political hatred as a result of their exposure to radio political
OBJECTIVES OF THE
The credibility of the radio in dispersing political
information and act as a socio-political tool for mobilizing women in Enugu metropolis to
participate in National politics is the objective of this work. The work will
also see the journalist as a product of the society. The Nigerian society as a
conglomeration of different ethnic groups- traditions, beliefs, images, goals,
aspirations and constraints must inevitable influence and be influenced upon by
the journalist. He assists in shaping the magnitude and direction of what is
communicated to the different “publics” especially women in Enugu metropolis of the media.
This role has its
disadvantages for the constant barrages of charges of biased, prejudice, and
partisanship leveled against radio and its staff.
This study will
x-ray how women radio listeners in Enugu
metropolis view political messages.
Again, in talking
about credibility in radio reports, the researchers will consider messages
credibility and sources credibility. By radio credibility, we are talking about
believability of radio reports by women, in Enugu metropolis. In connection with the
sources credibility, the research will be interested in knowing whether the
source of the news has any influence on the credibility rating of the news report.
Do women in Enugu
see radio as capable of being manipulated and therefore, of presenting less
credible political news report. This work takes into cognizance of the fact
that the radio is exclusively owned by the government in (Nigeria) with
exception of Minaj 89.4 Obosi in Anambra state and Rap power 100.5 in Lagos
state and meg probable be manipulated by powers that be.
study will examine whether it is the political culture in Nigeria that
women should relax in participating national politics.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
Women have been relegated to the background since the
inception of the Nigerian politics. However, women have raised their heads
above waters in terms of socio-economic development in the Nigeria. This
study is geared towards knowing why their active role in politics has been
relegated to the background.
This study is long over due because of its significance to
the theoretical politics socio-cultural development of radio in national
politics. One of the theoretical statements will focus on whether the women in Enugu metropolis form
opinion or politics, following their exposure to radio news.
Again, on the effect of radio exposure on political
attitude change, on theoretical statement, it will also consider the role of
inter-personal communication in relation to women in Enugu metropolis selective perception of
The study will assist the government in making policy on
radio use in a political situation especially as it effect political news
presentation specifically among women in Enugu
Finally, the study will also contribute to our
socio-cultural development through an empirical linkage of credibility and
sycophancy in Nigeria
context. It will again enlighten our mind on the use of radio for
socio-cultural integration of the women through fair political news management
in the radio.
1.5 RESERCH QUESTIONS
Have you been educated about politics?
Have you been listening to radio political
Have you attended any political seminar/symposium?
Are you aware of the kind or politics practiced
Through which medium do you receive political
Do you rely on radio message as a more reliable
How does news about politics on radio appeals to
Do you believe news about politics you hear
through the radio?
For how long have you been listening to news
about politics on radio?
Do you discuss the radio political news with
Do you believe the news report after such
Do you write to or phone radio news report you
Do you see radio news reports about politics as
manipulated by the government and its agencies?
From the foregoing research question therefore, some
hypothesis shall be experimented in this study. The hypotheses are as contained
1. H1: Women
metropolis radio listeners get most
of their political information form the radio.
H0: Women in Enugu metropolis radio listeners do not get
most of their information from the radio.
2. H2: Women
metropolis tend to believe radio political
news only after interpersonal communication.
H0: Women in Enugu metropolis are not likely to believe
radio political news even without
3. H3: Exposure
to radio political news wills likely results to political opinion formation.
H0: Exposure to radio political news wills
likely results to political opinion formation.
4. H4: There
is the tendency for women in Enugu
metropolis radio listeners not to
respond to radio political news
due to non-objectivity in the news.
H0: Women in Enugu radio listeners are likely to respond to radio political news due to
perception of objectivity in the news.
H5: women in Enugu metropolis radio listeners do not believe political news on
radio because of perceived sycophancy
of news report by the government.
H0: women in Enugu metropolis radio listeners believe political news on
radio and are not due perceive news
report as sycophants on government.
The null, hypothesis
included after each base is to get a common base for the entire attribute so
that the different attributes have to be properly measured.
The conceptual definitions of the variable involved the
ordinary literal definition of variable. While the operational definitions
involve the working definitions for the study.
CONCEPTUAL AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITION
a) Message acceptance:
Someone’s favourable reception of a message.
b) Radio exposure: An
individual’s access to the radio and its contents.
c) Radio mobilization:
The act of influencing someone by radio news.
d) Participation: The
act of someone taking part in something (politics).
e) Politics: The act of
some one taking part in leadership of a town, state or in general public
a) Message acceptance:
Self-willingness reception of particular political news.
b) Radio exposure: The
total listening period to a radio political news.
c) Radio mobilization:
State motivation to radio political news.
d) Participation: The
totality of women who are engaged in active politics in Enugu metropolis.
e) Politics: The number
of government offices or activities that women in Enugu metropolis.
The assumption of this research work is that radio
political information have been teleguided and manipulated by the government
and influential political women that stake in the radio operations.
Another assumption is that the government uses the newsmen
and radio editors to influence these women attitudes towards politics though
their repetitive radio political message appeal correspond with what the
sponsor want (government).
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The focus of the study is on mobilization and
participation of women in political news on radio.
The study will not focus on rate of usage of radio. This
is because various researches made by some researchers revealed that average of
about 60-70% of the women listen to radio.
Apparently, de to time, finance and other logistic
constraints, this study will be centered on sampled women living in
Independence Layout/New Haven, Abakpa/emene, Uwani/Awkunanaw, and New
Layout/Ogui. The sample will not stretch out of these areas.
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