man trust of this study is to find out the role of radio in mobilizing Nigerian
women in politics. This is studied in relation to other media of communication.
became interested in this project since 4th March, 2004, when some
of us listened to the review on the international women’s day on COSMO FM with
the title “Nigerian Women Since 1985”. There were so many women liberation that
spoke especially on the role women play in the socio-economic and political
development of Nigeria.
made a proposal that comprise of our interests, objectives, and importance of
the study; Research methodology research problems, research hypothesis and
definition of terms etc. We used survey method in conducting this study. The
major objective is to ascertain if there is any significant difference between
radio and other media as sources of political information to women.
one (H1) postulated that Nigerian women tend to be getting more of their
political information from radio than any other medium of communication. It was
empirically supported with a calculated value of X2 = 77.04, as
against a table value X2 = 11.345. Thus Nigerian women tend to be
getting more of their political information from radio than any other medium of
second hypothesis (H2) postulates that Nigerian women tend to prefer news from
radio to political news from opinion leaders. It received empirical support
with a calculated value of X2 = 81.621 as against a table value of X2
= 11.345. In essence of our respondents are pf the view that Nigerian women
tend to prefer news from radio to political news form opinion leaders.
third hypothesis stated, “Women who are exposed to political news tend to be
more influenced than those not exposed, in their political opinion formation.
It has as well received statistical support with a calculated value of X2
= 114.08 as against a table value of X2 = 11.345. It then means that
Nigerian women that are exposed to political news tend to be more influenced in
their political opinion formation than those not exposed.
fourth and the final hypothesis of the study postulates that radio tends to be
more accessible to Nigerian women than any other medium of communication. The
hypothesis is empirically supported with a calculated value of X2 =
98.66 as against the table value of 11.345. This means that the audience
believes that radio is more accessible to Nigerian women than any other medium
general analysis, our findings are in line with our postulations in literature
review that among the various medium of communication, radio is the most
veritable tool of mobilizing Nigerian women into politics. This is because it
tends to be fast and immediate in delivering their messages to their target
audience than any other medium of communication.
were given on how other studies should be carried out and how radio should be
equipped, modernized, privatized and used to enhance its use in mobilization of
women into politics.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Background of the study
The statement of problem
Objective of the study
Significance of the study
The scope of study
The limitation of the study
Definition of terms
REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
Sources of literature
Radio as a mobilization tool
Nigerian women in politics
Summary of literature review
DATA ANALYSES AND RESULTS
Data analysis (introduction)
Data distribution and analysis
Interpretation and discussion
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
study, the role of radio in mobilizing Nigerian women into politics will look
into the role played by radio as a medium of mass communication in galvanizing
and preparing Nigerian women into politics especially towards participating in
this on going transition programme.
are so many other communication media like the festival, gongs, drums, and town
crier. But in view of how the channels could be used in performing the role of
mobilizing Nigerian women into politics, radio is more effective in getting
messages to its target audience (Nigerian women). Though the magazine and
newspaper, for their non-transient feature would have helped, but it is found
difficult for women to afford it. Infact average Nigerian women can not afford
to spend their income in buying newspaper and magazines just to get political
information. Hence radio could be used as last and best resort to reach
Nigerian women in case of wide reach and transcend language problem/literacy
problem. This why during one of her lectures Mrs. Ukozor stressed that through
integration, mass media can turn the whole world into a “global village”. Radio
as a mass media does the same work.
Television is a very expensive communication gadget that cannot be afforded by
every family in Nigeria.
set of traditional communication system cannot work for the nation because of
so many ethnic groups in Nigeria. There is no unification of traditional
communication system in Nigeria. Many Nigerian women are living in urbanization
so it is ineffective to disseminate political information to women through the
use the traditional communication media system.
A.G. (2000) in his study about audiences concluded that the audiences
evaluated sources of information in terms of content, television in breath of
perception and radio in availability.
radio for its availability characteristics is always handy to these women.
N. Akpan (1999) in mass communication in Nigeria. Book of reading
(ed) (Nwuneli) says that the public is entitled to all facts in a political
situation and that of the basis of those facts; it can make its decision.
Therefore these women if informed about political news tend to be politically
Introduction to mass communication (Agee, Warrant, Kendall) by Noelle
Neumann (1985) says that “real life is different from laboratory controlled studies,
the media are so ambiguous that it is difficult for a person to escape a
massage. Repetitive massages have reinforced impact and news stories are so
much the same that there is few option for selective perception. However, the
media for its agenda setting role and using radio to disseminate information
repeatedly about politics. These Nigerian women tend to be influenced by listening
to these repetitive political messages, hence develop the habit of liking
mass media generally perform six conventional functions to the audience. They
are education, information, entertainment, socialization, survellant, and
cultural transmission. Ben Agbo stated these roles during his lecture with year
two students (2004). Radio as a medium generally performs the same role; radio
uses these roles in mobilizing Nigerian women into politics.
to Edwin Ude (HOD) during his lectures with the class while in ND1, the ‘Radio
reaches places where television cannot reach. The cities, even the rural areas
feel the power of this medium. No wonder old men and women don’t joke with
their battery radio. Radio as a mass medium-collect, store, process and
disseminate political information, which the Nigeria women require.
radio as entertainment channel entertains Nigerian women through the chips of
information and political giggles in the radio. Entertainment gives by radio to
Nigerian women these women on doing their work easily, fast and simultaneously
with radio entertainment. Women also memorize these political giggles and sing
them in other to relieve boredom.
socialization need of the radio agree with the Nigerian women on a particular
candidate or politician to vote for. Radio exposes every thing concerning a
candidate and then the audience (Nigerian women) will then accept the person
they want. Thereby making this women to socialize in the community ‘they are.
radio as surveillance channel, here the radio plays the role of watchdog.
According to Ben Agbo during his lectures with your one students (2003) “states
that watch dog role of the press is and adversarial to the government”.
This is in effect that radios investigate the candidate very well and watch the
present government for the betterment of the country.
promotes culture of the country. It is through radio that you will hear about
the culture of almost all Nigeria ethnic groups. In radio you will hear certain
programmes that are done in so many languages. Infact different language in
communities like Udi ndee, Awgu unu ejee, Onitcha ado ndonuoo, Awka demenu.
During such programmes radio announces the political aspirants and people that
have high post in the government.
Introduction to mass communication states that the media also help in the
development of culture by awakening and stimulating the imagination and
aesthetic creativity of individuals, thus leading to the precaution of cultural
air facts. Radio, “As a medium disseminate cultural and artistic products for
the purpose of preserving the past heritage of the people. The status conferral is
another role of the radio that is when radio confers status and legitimacy on
political leader and issue. Here radio is setting the political agenda for the
Nigerian women by deciding what political topics Nigeria women talk about.
According to sandman et all (1976). The editorial decision that a
particular event is not news is a self-fulfilling judgment; if the news media
ignore it, then it cannot be news. Conversely, any event given major play in
the mass media becomes by definition of a major event… In this sense, even when
the media do not tell us what to think, they tell us what to think about.
example is what we have in the network news. The NTA Network and other daily’s
has been announcing how powerful Dr. Dora Akunyili (Mrs.) is, such kind of
announcement raises high the women status and inspire Nigerian women into
politics. Dr. Dora Akunyili is the present Director General NAFDAC.
researcher had an interview with the former chairman of Nkanu West Local
Government Mrs. Evelyn Chukwu about what motivated her into politics. Mrs.
Chukwu said that she got motivated from the various political messages she
hears from the radio about the on going political campaign.
went further to say that women who came to vote for her during the election
proper, got mobilized during her political campaign through the radio, and felt
that her position or a change in government will bring them a radical
development change. The enemas turn up of female voters made her to win.
this study will look into the critics of radio credibility about radio
information; especially of political news messages. This aside it will also
tackle the various critics why women since the inception of Nigerian
independence (1960s) and Nigerian political eras have been showing head above
the water to compete with the male counterparts in Nigerian politics.
THE STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
over the world, the media have been regarded as veritable tools of political
socialization and mobilization. Among the developing countries especially,
radio has been singled out as the most veritable tool of mobilizing people into
action be it politics, developmental progammes etc.
Nigeria, both before and after she gained independence; women have not been
fully taking part in the political game of the country. The very few women that
are particularly conscious, according to chief Mrs. Ebun, Oyaghola, minister of
national planning (1992) in her address to the intra parliamentary “Have
contributed to the event handing over of power to people and will always be
remembered as some of the pioneering landmark of the great journey to political
independence by this great nation”.
other women that participated in politics include Chief Mrs. Ramson
Anikulaopo Kuti, Mrs. Margret Ekpo, Mrs,. Elizabeth Okaro, Prof. Ikeji Ani
clark and other women of substance that have participated in politics.
status conferral media especially the radio have been identified to be
responsible for their inspiration, motivation and mobilization.
is in tight of this political apathy among Nigerian women that the researcher
wants to find out the following research problems.
What role does the radio play in the mobilization of women
From which medium does Nigerian women get their political
Which sources of political information does Nigerian women
How does exposure to political information influence Nigerian
How accessible are radio to Nigeria women?
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of the study will focus on finding out the role
of radio in mobilizing Nigerian women for political participation in the
To find out how Nigerian women radio listeners views
To find out why some Nigerian women are suffering political
To find out the medium Nigerian women prefer getting their
political information from.
To find out how Nigerian women that are exposed to political
news are influenced into political participation.
To find out the medium that are most accessible to Nigerian
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
is expected that after this study, Nigerian radio broadcasters will know the
best techniques involved in packaging political information that will be able
to catalyze, stimulate, mobilize, and inspire Nigerian women into participating
the study will be of relevance to students, studying communication and its
paradigms because, it will enrich their knowledge in determining how to
disseminate political information and get effective feed backs from Nigerian
women, especially when they go into the labour market.
will also benefit from this study because, the areas and ways that students
need to be though about how to package political information will be made clear
in the study.
all, the study will be of relevance to the government because it will make a
policy statement on the need for adequate funding for radio station, as the
most veritable tool or medium of mobilizing women into politics.
Do Nigerian women get most of their political information
from radio more than any other medium?
Do Nigerian women prefer political news from radio to news
they get from opinion leaders?
How does exposure to political news influence women on their
opinion formation in Nigerian politics?
Does objectivity of reporting affect the listener ship of
radio political information?
Do the Nigerian women have access to radio than other medium
Nigerian women tend to be getting more of their political information from
radio than any other medium of communication?
There is no difference? Between radio and other medium as a source of political
information to women.
Nigerian women tend to prefer political news from radio to political news from
There is no difference on the Nigerian women’s preference of political
information from either radio or opinion leader.
are exposed to political news tend to be more influenced than those not exposed
in political opinion formation.
There is no difference between those exposed to political news and those not
exposed in political opinion formation.
Radio tends to be more accessible to Nigerian women than any other medium of
There is no difference between the accessibility of radio and other mass
communication channels to Nigerian women.
THE SCOPE OF STUDY
study shall treat only the role of radio in mobilizing Nigerian women into
participation in politics. The study is a very wide one that comprises the
whole of Nigerian women.
is limited geographically to four main areas in Enugu because of financial
problem, lack of time and inadequate material, I can not cover the whole states
effect, the four main areas to be covered are Mgbidi-Awgu, Amechi Awkunanaw,
Obeagu, and Independence layout Enugu. These areas shall constitute the
researcher’s sample population in each of these for areas represents almost the
whole of Nigerian women.
THE LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
study is focused on mobilizing and participation of Nigerian women in political
news on radio. The focus in not on the rate of usage of radio etc, since an
average of about 60-70 of Nigerian women listen to radio.
the study will be on pure political news and programmes, with exception of
study is centered on Nigerian women. Due to the topic of the study it shall not
study women globally.
the scientific nature of the sample and the standard of measuring instrument
(questionnaire) will help to generalize the larger population.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
CONCEPTIONAL DEFINITION: An audio medium of
Communication that can be reached.
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION: The percentage number of
sets that Nigerian women use
in getting her information.
CONCEPTIONAL: To assemble people into
readiness for group
OPERATIONAL: The number of women that
radio has galvanized
CONCPTIONAL: Drawing a judgment of a
with respect for merit.
OPERATIONAL: Forming opinions concerning
political news in
CONCEPTIONAL: People who direct judgment
Information to women with
respect to merit
OPERATIONAL: People who direct women
issue in Nigeria.
CONCEPTIONAL: Messages or news concerned
OPERATIONAL: Information that are about
the political news in
CONCEPTIONAL: The act of someone being exposed to
information about politics.
number of Nigerian women that expose
themselves to political issue in