work is designed to achieve the specific objective of examining the degree of
implementation of accountability, probity and transparency in the public sector
especially in the state and federal civil service. The literature review helped
to ascertain other writer’s view concerning the subject under study which
explains how public accountant were able to utilize judiciously the allocation
made to them. The data used for this research work was collected from primary
source, using questionnaire. Against the background, invaluable and reliable
discoveries were made. Finally the research recommended that the institute of
chartered accountant of Nigeria and other related accounting training bodies
should live to their responsibilities toward ensuring that their members
maintain the ethics of the profession and code of conduct in practice. And also
the use of quota system in the federal civil service employed should stop.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
One: Introduction 1
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of Problem 3
1.3 Research Questions 5
1.4 Objective of the Study 6
1.5 Statement of Hypothesis (es) 6
1.6 Significant of the Study 8
1.7 Scope of the Study 11
1.8 Limitations of the Study 11
1.9 Definitions of Term (if any) 12
Two: Review of Related
2.1 Introduction 13
2.2 Accuracy and Competence 16
2.3 Clarity of Presentation 17
2.4 The Role of Public Accountants 19
2.5 Introduction to the Term Accounting 21
2.6 Meaning of Accountability, Transparency and Probity 24
2.7 Importance of Cost Accounting to the Economy 30
Definition of Government Accounting 31
2.17.2 Objective of Government Accounting 32
Legal Basis of Government Accounting 33
Three: Research Methodology and
3.1 Introduction 34
3.2 Research Design 34
3.3 Description of the Population of the Study 35
3.4 Sample Size 35
3.5 Sampling Technique 35
3.6 Sources of Data Collection 36
3.7 Method of Data Presentation 37
3.8 Method of Data Analysis 37
Four: Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation 38
4.1 Introduction 38
4.2 Data Presentation 38
4.3 Data Analysis 39
4.4 Hypothesis Testing 50
Five: Summary of Finding, Conclusion and Recommendations 60
5.1 Introduction 60
5.2 Summary of Findings 60
5.3 Conclusion 63
5.4 Recommendations 64
Background of the Study
Corruption and looting
of public treasury was a major problem in the public sector accounting report
from office of statistics Lagos show that our accounting records are balanced
in arrears and our financial records are hardly balanced daily, weekly, quarterly,
half-yearly and yearly basis as appropriate. This was evidenced by Chief Olusegun
Obasanjo during his first maiden address to the nation immediately he was sworn
in as the president of the Federal Republic of Nigeria on the 29th
day of May. He stressed that accountability, probity and transparency has
suffered a lot set-back especially in the civil service. He therefore suggest
that of the best ways to eliminate this ill in Nigeria public service are:
use of public
The use of
implementation of government policies and programmes.
use of auditors of the federal republic
of Nigeria among others.
He therefore concluded
by saying “When we consider how the public accounting and auditing can grow and
develop, we are concerned not only with helping the public accountant or the
auditor fill their position, but also with helping the whole economy and the
organization structure grow and develop” (Obasanjo).
The concept should
therefore make it wise for us to look more closely at the relationship between Nigeria and
other countries of the world. And for Nigeria to be recognized as a
corrupt – free economy, the accounting profession must be in a position to
balance the financial records of the federal government daily, weekly, monthly,
quarterly, half year or yearly basis. This is because members of the public and
the international community want to see result, see the economy growth and the profession
produces the final output.
The same goes for other
facets of the economy as indicated above. The military system administration
should be thrown to the winds as we have evolved democracy like other developed
countries of the world such as United
States of America, United Kingdom etc.
It was in an attempt to
analyze the importance of the president’s address on the 29th May,
1999 that this topic “The impact of public accountant in the implementation of
accountability, probity and transparency, in the federal civil service” comes
Statement of Problem
accounting in a corrupt society is a very big problem to the economy of the
nation. This is because the financial records do not reflect the true and fair
view of the accounting records. Therefore lots of collaboration in the utilization
of the public funds to the extent that fund allocated through annual for the
public (government) income and expenditure are at times late. What ever is the
position with timeless of delivery, these deviations are not investigated to
ensure prompt remedial action which will re-direct and re-orientate plans
towards budgeted levels. Another short coming is the threat to continually of
production of qualified accountant who will replaced older retiring hands. This
system for a number of factors like inadequate infrastructures (for example, training
materials, computers, library facilities etc) necessary for such programmes.
This point drives to a large extent from the very poor and unrealistic in form
of salary. Public
accountant are placed on government determined salary scales unlike their
professionals chartered counterparts whose fees for auditing and other
professional services rendered are self determined. The implication of the
foregoing deliberation is that while a professional body like institute of
chartered accountant and its various programmes aimed at monitoring more
closely the curriculum of their counterparts in the government employment are
poorly taken care of.
Another shortcoming is
the quota system in the federal service. The quota system has introduced
mediocre and unethical practices in the accounting profession. In a bid to fill
in vacant positions in the federal civil services, most of the unqualified
personnel (mainly from certain ethnic group of the country) are employed to the
detriment of the job, hence giving loopholes for embezzlement and financial
misappropriation. Merits were thrown to the winds. In all this, helped the
administrators and some members of the society to look down on the accountant
as mere “house helps” and “rubber stamp” in the system.
In what way has
the implementation of accountability transparency and probity affected the
federal civil service?
What are the
best ways to improve on accountability transparency and probity in Nigeria economy?
What are the
actual role of the public accountant in the implementation of accountability
transparency and probity?
Is the public
accountant in collaboration with their chief executive in the judicious
utilization of all allocation made from the budget?
The Objectives of the Study
To determine the
degree of implementation, of accountability, transparency and probity in the
public sector especially in the state and federal civil service.
To determine the
best way to improve on accountability, transparency and probity in Nigeria
whether public accountant in collaboration with their chief executive utilize
judiciously all the allocations made from the budget.
Statement of Hypothesis
Ho: Public accountant in collaboration with their
directors (including principals) do not utilize judiciously all the allocations
made available to them.
HI: Public accountant in collaboration with their
directors (including principals) utilize judiciously all the allocation made
available to them.
The testing of the
hypothesis can be called out through the use of the draft of the federal
government of Nigeria
1999, a year 2000 budget estimate on recurrent and capital expenditure using unity
school’s allocation in the south-east geo-political zones on personnel cost and
overhead cost respectively. A study carried out shows that a total sum of one
hundred and fifty million, six hundred and fifty thousand and twenty four naira
(150,650,024.00) was allocated to the ten (10) unity schools in the south east
geo-political zone in 1999 as against one hundred and seventy six million and
seventy two thousand five hundred and eight naira (176,072,508.00) in year
2000. Yet each of this schools had one problem or the other in the payment of
teachers and non teaching staff salaries and allowances as at when due.
In overhead cost, a
total sum of fourteen million seven hundred and twenty two thousand two hundred
and twenty two kobo (14,722,222,20) was allocated in 1990 as opposed to
seventeen million and thirteen thousand eight hundred and eight kobo (17,013,888,80).
In the year 2000 (reference table C and D in chapter four) but this research
discovered that most of the staff who were engage in official journey to their
headquarters have not received their duty tour allowances and other claims on
flimsy reason that funds were not available.
Significance of the Study
This study will be of
immense help to the policy makers in the federal civil service of Nigeria who
will be able to know and assert the adequate role of the public accountant in
the service with a view to showing up the programmes of accountability, probity
and transparency of the present administration. “Nigeria” for the purpose of
this paper means “the federal republic of Nigeria including any area outside
the territorial waters of the federal republic of Nigeria which in accordance
with international law has been or may hereafter be designated under the laws
of the federal republic of Nigeria concerning the continental shelf as an area
within which the rights of the federal republic of Nigeria with respect to the
sea-bed and subsoil and their natural resources may be exercise” constitution
of the federal republic of Nigeria (1999).
The policy makers
should see the public accountants as playing the role of a coach who exposes
the skills and tactic and allows the players to play the game. This is because
in everything an individual or a group of individual in varying professions do,
there is a reason and purpose. For example, in a private organization this
reason or purpose is referred to as an objective or goal. Therefore, government
(public service) whose realm of operation is popularly referred to as the
public sector has as its objective the governance of her people. This implies
the tremendous responsibilities to grannies resources and allocates same
towards fostering economics growth and improving the standard of living of the
citizens of the nation. Again government is empowered by the laws of the land
(constitution) to engage in contractual arrangement for the purpose of
increasing the resources available to her in order to meet the requirement of
governance, since its holds the wealth of her nation in trust for that nation.
To this extent, the government of a nation owns her citizens the duty to
account for the stewardship in the effective disposition of the resources
entrusted to her (this is accountability).
For the government or
the public sector to discharge her responsibility or stewardship effectively,
there is the need to maintain proper records of the value of all programmes, activities
and services synthesize and analyze the effect of government financial
transaction, classify, summarize and communicate such information for purposes
of future decision making or assessment of performance.
Scope of the Study
This study attempts to
establish whether the directors of department utilize judiciously all the
allocation made available to them or not, and to examine the impact of public
accountant in the implementation of accountability, transparency and probity.
Limitations of the Study
In the course of this
study, the researcher encounter some problems.
Firstly is the problem
of data information, gathering data for this study was quite problematic.
Secondly the issue of
inadequate financial aggravated the very problem encountered by the researcher.
Finally, time was a
limited factor, it is very tasking combining classroom activities with giving
to the field to collect information for the research work.
Definitions of Terms
integrity, absolute moral correctness.
The quality or state of being transparent.
Responsible to somebody or for something.
A social system that gives opportunity and advantage to people on the basis of
their ability rather than their wealth or seniority.
Somebody often in a position of minor authority who is regarded as behaving in
a self important over bearing way.
The part of possible aspect of something e.g. an important aspect of our work.
A quality that is adequate or acceptable, but not very good.