The project work consist of five chapters: chapter one is introduction, historical background, statement of the problems, scope and limitation, operation of terms, significance, aims and objectives, hypothesis and others, while chapter two is literature revie, conceptual review, theoretical frame work, empirical review, impact of reform, chapter three is research methodology and questionnaire sampling and survey, method of data presentation analysis, population, sampling techniques, sample size, instrumentation, on the Jigawa State Civil Service Commission, as well as effect of the reforms on the manpower productivity of Civil Service and the problems of the reforms. In chapter four, I have presentation of data and analysis with testing of hypothesis, the presentation of data and analysis as well as the testing of the hypothesis and then lastly, chapter five contained summary of findings, conclusion, recommendation and Bibliography.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background of the study - - - - - 3
1.2 Statement of Problems - - - - - 5
1.3 Aims and objectives of the study - - 6
1.4 Research question - - - - - - - 6
1.5 Hypothesis - - - - - - - 6
1.6 Significance of the study - - - - - 7
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study - - - 7
1.8 Operations of terms - - - - - - 9
2.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 11
2.1 Conceptual review of the study - - - - 12
2.11 The civil service; function and reforms - - - 20
2.1.2 problems of Nigerian civil service - - - - - 22
2.1.3 the effects reform on productivity of civil Service - - 23
2.1.4 Problems of Reforms - - - - - 25
2.2. Theoretical Framework - - - - - - 26
2.3 Empirical Review of the study - - - - - 28
2.3.1 Situation Before Reform - - - - - - 30
2.3.2 Reform interventions Agenda and Programme of Activities 30
2.3.3 Impact of reform - - - - - - - 31
3.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 32
3.1 Research Methodology and Questionnaire, Sampling and Survey-32
3.2 Method of Data presentation and analysis - - - 33
3.3 The Population - - - - - - - 34
3.4 The Sample size - - - - - - - 34
3.5 Sampling Techniques - - - - - - 35
3.6 Instrumentation - - - - - - - 35
PRESENTATION OF DATA
4.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 36
4.1 Presentation of Data and Analysis - - - - 36
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 45
5.1 Summary of findings - - - - - - 45
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 46
5.3 Recommendation - - - - - - - 46
Reference - - - - - - - - - 49
Conceptually, Civil Service and Public Service are interchangeably used and still dispose confusion especially to a layperson; though the interpretation given to the phrase “Public Service” in the 1963 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, made it almost unanimous with “Civil Service”.
Primarily, the reform is referred to make or become better by removing or putting right what is bad or wrong as the case maybe, which implies change not a mere change but a radical change for the better, which could be political, social, administrative, economic and so on. It normally means to improve on the capacity at an organization to carryout its responsibilities.
In British,Civil Service can be described from the early history of Satin and Norman, when Professor W.J.M Mackenzie declared from his book titled “The Spirit Act British Administration” that “in England we all criticize the Civil Service, for most of us this is alike talk about the weather, a good certain that the other man will also have something to say on the subject”.
Under Sastin and Norman monarchy, as the affairs of state increased, certain administration matters are said to be delegated to the person holding office which were primarily concerned with the King own needs e.g. secretary Chamberlain, Marshall e.t.c.
By the number to follow the official has so ground in number to the Kings Courts around the country and Westminster became the seat of the business. With the extension of the central power under the monarch, there was a large increase in the Civil Servant as well as whit hall developed as the centre of administration.
In 18th century, the organization, the administration was equally inefficient. There is no attempt made to coordinate the work of the Civil Service. Each minister was directly responsible to the King their immediate supervisor, the Civil Service was split into a number of autonomous body such as pay and condition of service and its independent teasing were having its own organizational problems.
Furthermore, in the cause of portraying the Civil Service reforms in Nigeria their was a legend that in Nigeria during the Colonial Rule or Era, it was the British that constituted political executive, they thus fashion out a bureaucracy that was inform and operational consistent with the goals of colonialization. Then both The First and The Second World War respectively, led to the emergence of nationalist movement who agitated for reforms, and changes within the colonial bearings of the colonialist by the westernized educated elite, that led the nationalist for the right to share the political or to be more charitable a representative position within the colonial structure. To appease and accommodate such nationalist needs, the colonialist carried out reforms. It was within this content that Nigerians introduced constitutional change reforms extensively to make for local representation in the legislative.
As Nigerians were gradually co-opted in the colonial super structure during politics of de – colonization of service for all categories of workers or appointment of Nigerians into the so called European position; to the colonialist, such consensus becomes necessary so as to maintain peace in the face of the nationalist, social engineering and enlightenment. So also, after independence, Nigerian leaders for virtually the same reason carried out such reforms.
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF AREA OF STUDY
In order to write the historical background of Jigawa State Civil Service Commission, there is need to touch the historical background of the Nigerian Civil Service. Subsequent to the conquer of Lagos and Northern colony in 1861 and 1903 respectively, the two protectorate were amalgamated in 1914 Sir Lord Fredrick Lugard the then Governor General hitherto the Southern and Northern protectorate lives in a separate entity ruled by Britain.
However, the origin of Nigerian Civil Servcie can be traced back to different dimension; consider for example in 1861, when Lagos was ceded to Britain and in 1861 Mr. Freeman was appointed as Governor General this making the beginning of Civil Service.
Furthermore, due to the frequent re-organization of administration 1899, the administration of the protectorate of the Southern Nigeria was transferred to the colonial office. The Nigerian Civil Service both the Federal and State was patterned on British model. This comprises of four main classes which includes administrative, executive, clerical and manipulative class. The Nigerian Civil Service was based on GURSUCH Reports of 1954 which recommended that the division of the Civil Service into four broad classes at the time, these are sub-clerical and manipulative clerical and technical classes and finally the administrative and professional classes, each classes is divided into groups known as cadres.
In case of our area of study which is Jigawa, the historical background of its commission i.e. Civil Service Commission.
Jigawa State Civil Service Commission: Was established in 1976 which refer to when the state was created by the Federal Government.
The Commission comprises of different officers, which includes the senior and junior officers in which the officers with appropriate offices that can enable the duty and work locally to be undertaken, the composition of senior officers includes from grade level 07 to 16 and junior officers involved level 01 to 06 and headed by the Chairman and members.
Hence the Commission is referred to as a group of people legally authorized to discharge a task, example justices of peace collectively; the Jigawa State Civil Service Commission was setup for the loyalty and harmony among officers that fall within the jurisdiction of Jigawa State Government.
Challenge of the commission are: Recruitment of staff for the entire service of Jigawa State Government, promotion, transfer / secondment into and outside service; the Commission handles directly all officers, the commission delegates some authority to the Secretary to the State Government, Director General and Head of Department in respect of appointments, promotion, discipline of all officers on grade level 01 to 05, the delegation also empowers them to appoint on temporary basis officers on grade level 07 and below as well as acting appointment, confirmation, and renewal of contact appointment of officers on grade level 08 and below.
Similarly, Civil Servants wishing to quit the service either on retirement due to old age or on personal reason will seek the approval of the commission.
These functions are carried out in accordance with the law guiding the Civil Service Reform of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The Jigawa State Civil Service Commission in general is faced with a lot of problems ranging from structural procedure, social and human malaise. These problems have been existing for 20 years. Furthermore, in an attempt to ramble or deviate on the statement of the problem, it is related to know that no established or organized Institution would like to be disturbed with problems, every now and then, unless if the situation calls for it. It is palpable and clear that in any setup there would be some problems likewise Jigawa State Civil Service Commission.
The following problems will be examined:
(i) Conflict of Authority
(iv) Lack of enough motivation.
1.3 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The Civil Service reforms have been in progress for years; therefore it is important to note its effectiveness and ineffectiveness most especially with regards to management of development.
At this point the aim and objectives of this study is to attempt to identify the manpower productivity of Civil Service with particular reference to Jigawa State Civil Service Commission.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this research work is to educate and enlighten the parties involved in carrying out the research work.
The Government: it could be relevant to the Government that is as an instrument that could be used to deal with Civil Service reference to Jigawa State Civil Service Commission.
The Civil Service Commission both at Federal and State levels: this help or guide the commission to know how reforms affect productivity financially, psychologically and its effect on their performance. They could also use this research work to find a means of settling conflict with their employees without the result been detrimental on their part.
The researcher as well as potential administrators will broaden their knowledge and also know how the issues affect them, the Government and the Commission. The researcher will also have the opportunity of meeting all the partiers involved and the present views and analysis they made to give a good result.
This will create a basis of research for other researcher(s) to continue from were I stopped.
H1: The more reforms we have, the more stable civil service
HO: The less reform we have, no stable civil service
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study discusses the Civil Service reforms and productivity. It embraced the staff of Jigawa State Civil Service Commission.
The research work examines or studies the activities of Jigawa State Civil Service Commission from 1976 to 2020 that is for the 20 years back.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In each research work there is certainly some limitation draw backs or weaknesses associated with it which are beyond the control of the researcher, the researcher experienced the following limitations:-
i. Finance: this is the cost or amount of money that would be incurred in the course of carryout the research, among the factors include, the cost of transportation which is very high secondly the cost of typing, photocopying information necessary for the completion of the project, to mention but a few.
ii. Time: The researcher experienced the inadequacy of time, because the researcher would have to attend all his lectures and still squeeze his time to attend other courses of studies which is Civil Service Reform and its productivity. Also, the workers or officials in which the accurate information could be gotten from hardly stay in their offices; this makes it indispensable for the researcher to be going there so often.
iii. Lack of Trust: In carrying out research like this most of the time, the respondents learn or tend to distrust the researcher because they feel the researcher is only trying to tap or to siphon their secret or information; this makes almost those consulted on the study to give the researcher little or no relevant information.
iv. Unwillingness of Public Officers to cooperate: Some Public Officers show directly or by implication their unwillingness to cooperate with the researcher because of their selfish interest, this goes along way in demotivating the researcher.
1.6 OPERATION OF TERMS
This is an indispensable aspect in project writing theme which could not be overemphasized, unclassified terms in the course of writing anything may lead to misinterpretation or misconstruing of the concept.
i) Service: citing Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary service refers or means the work that somebody does for an Organization.
Service according to 1979 Constitution as amended in 1999 respectively to the Federal Republic of Nigeria defined service as a service in a civil capacity by a person appointed as staff in the office of the President, Governor, Vice President or Deputy Governor or a person assigned the responsibility of conducting any Governmental business.
ii) Reforms: refers to improve a system or Organization, a law e.t.c by making changes to it. Thus it can also refers to means to make or become better by removing or putting right what is bad or wrong which implies change for the better which could be social, political, economic and administrative. e.t.c.
iii) Hypothesis: this refers to a preposition which can be put to test so as to determine its validity, thus, an hypothesis is made in order to findout the correct explanation of the phenomenon through investigation.
iv) Productivity: refers to the rate at which a worker of a company or a country try to produce goods and services and the amount produced compared with how much time, work and money is needed to produce them.
v. Civil of, relating to, or involving the general public, their activities, needs, or ways, or civic affairs as distinguished from special (such as military or religious) affairs
vi. Manpower power available from or supplied by the physical effort of human beings
vii. Statement: according to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, 2000, defined statement as something that someone says or write that gives an information or opinion.
viii. Problem: according to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, 2000, defined problem as a thing that is difficult to understand or to deal with.
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