TABLE OF CONTENT
AIMS AND OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.3 LIMITATION OF STUDY
1.4 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.2 ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE:
2.4 DISEASES OF LIVESTOCK (FOWLS):-
2.5 LIVESTOCK (POULTRY) FEEDS (MANUFACTURE):-
NUTRIENT / FEED REQUIREMENTS
2.7 NUTRITIVE VALUE OF EGGS ARE NUTRITIONS
2.8 STANDARDS OF LIVESTOCK (POULTRY) FEED QUALAITY
OF LIVESTOCK (POULTRY FEEDS: -
QUALITY CONTROL OF LIVESTOCK FEED:-
3.1 STEP I: SAMPLE COLLECTION
3.2 CHARACTERISATION OF
3.2.1 GRAM’S STAINING REACTION (HUCKER
3.2.2 INDOLE TEST
3.2.3 METHYL RED (MR) – VOGES PROKAUFR (VP) TEST.
3.2.4 CITRATE TEST
3.2.5 CARBOHYDRATE FERMENTATION BY TRIPLE SUGAR IRON
AGAR (TS1) TEST.
3.2.6 MOTILITY TEST
3.2.7 OXIDASE TEST
4.1 TOTAL AEROBIC BACTERIAL
4.2 COLIFORM BACTERIAL COUNTS
4.3 CHARACTERISATION OF
4.4 CHARACTERISZATION OF SALMONELLA ISOLATES
6.0 APPENDIX I
6.4 PEPTONE WATER
poultry used in agriculture generally refers to all domesticated birds kept for
egg or meat production. These includes
chickens (domestic fowls), Grallus
domestics, turkeys, ducks and geese.
This project will deal largely with the chicken which are the most
common domestic fowl. The species of
poultry are habitable or can survive in different environments therefore, they
are widely distributed in the world, with great increase in population, the
demand for goods especially protein food become acute. To meet the demand for animal protein and its
development, rapid multiplying ones becomes very necessary. Poultry has so many advantages over other domesticated
animal whose production is very much hindered by lack of money, high temperature,
disease and lack of good at certain periods of the year.
The diseases of poultry is like the
disease of other animals may be caused by: a. pathogenic organisms like
bacteria and viruses, protozoa, worms and some members of arthropods
Nutritional deficiency, (c) From wound or cannibalism
following diseases are usually associated with the fowls locally
Chronic respiratory diseases
incidence of salmonella and Escherida coli simply means the extent to which the
enteric organisms (Escherichia coli) that are part of the normal flora and
incidentally causes disease and pathogenic organism (salmonella) affect the
poultry feeds. Hill, D.H; and Davis, O.s; (1962). Shoening et al 1942). Defined diseases as any
abnormal condition of the tissue of the body, the cells that make up the
various tissue have specific functions to perform. Pekzar et al (1977) defined
Salmonell is as a disease of the chick fowl and swim bird cause by some species
described pullorum disease as an acute infection disease of body chicks caused
by salnonella pullorum. Infection is the entering of the disease produces
organisms into the animal.
(Poultry )gets infected when pathogenic
organisms passes to the susceptible animal through the through the
following avenues. Esmat.omar
Feeds and contaminated water feed or water containing
droppings or waste products of diseased animal will help spread the organisms
to fresh hosts. The feeding troughs and
watering vessels also spread the diseases if not separated.
Dropping or excretes: These material are the gateway
out for some stages of oarganisms to go out of the host and get to fresh animal
Close contact – some disease spread by contact. Their agents may be external parasites or air
borne in which case nearness to the superior’s birds increase the changes of
getting the organisms
To or event the disease pathogenic organism from
getting into the body of poultry, attention should be payed to those factors
that influence their infections and spread.
First and foremost, they should have disease resisting stock, provide
good shelter, clean range, proper
feeding and practise separating the unhealthy ones from the healthy
poultry, quarantining new stock. In case
of poultry, the brooder house should be 30m to 48m from old birds. Such that
they gets good feed and sunlight. They
should act be allowed to get in contact with their droppings or excretes since
their dropping carry the pathogenic organisms.
Sanitation is very important in poultry management by cleaning of water
cans and feed troughs and finally disinfecting the stock to help reduce organic
has been justified by the need and safety of consuming children (white meat)
which has low cholesterol but rich in protein than beef which has high cholesterol. Also human beings and the world at large,
benefit from our poultry farms where we have the layers (Egg producing Chiks)
and the broilers (Heavy chicks) for consumption.
The poultry (chicken) are rich in
protein and amino acid needed for growth.
Livestock feeds are formulated to a ratio for different species and
classes of poultry. These are also feed
additive, which may be added to the feed to prevent disease or make animals
utilize feed better. Some ingredient
concentrate is added to nourish the feed.
1.2 AIMS AND
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1. To highlight the various importance of
the livestock (poultry) to human and our industries.
determine the incidence of bacteria infection such as balmonella
Escherichia coli which cause health hazard to the poultry (Chiken).
and deduce effect of salmonella specie and Escherichia coli
in livestock (poultry) and their
poultry farmers on how to preserve and handle their farms
feeds from infections diseases to
1.3 LIMITATION OF STUDY
research work will be limited to the available materials for carrying out
experimental work and also due to cost of transportation. This work will be
limited to Enugu
HYP. I:- Salmonella and
Escherichia coli are the major causes of bacteira infection found in livestock
HYP. II: - salmonella only is the
infection that effects the livestock (poultry) feeds.
HYP. III:- Escherichia coli only is
the bacteria infection that effects the livestock (poultry) feeds.)
1.5 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Poultry feeds are infected during procession by
handling, mixing of ingredient and exposing the raw materials and furnished
products to the atmospheric micro organism.
Poultry (birds) are being infected through the
consumption of the contaminated feeds and unpurified water
Also when the healthy and unhealthy birds are fed
together from the some feeding trough and water vessels, eventually the
pathogenic and the enteric organisms from infested ones may widely spread
Salmonella and Escherichia coli as the bacterial
organisms effects the essential requirement of the body such as water,
carbohydrate, fats, vitamin, minerals and protein thereby reducing the content
of the nutrient needed for the food to the palatable and easily digestible
Consumers (humans) get infected by the in take of
uncooked and half done chicken.
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