This work is aimed at
determining the incidence of bacterial injections such as Salmonella and
Escherichia coli which cause health hazards to the poultry in their feeds. Sample feed were obtained from commercial
mash operation/ pellet mill operation at New heaven and top feed at Ogbete main
market Enugu. The samples were screened for total aerobic
bacteria count, total coliform count and the characterization of the bacteria
isolates carried out while indole test and citrate test were used to confirm
the presence of Escherichia coli. The confirmation of salmonella isolates on
Mac conkey agar was also done.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Tables of contents
List of tables
List of tables
and objectives of the study
cause by microorganisms
(poultry) feeds manufacturer
values of eggs
of feed quality
Types of poultry feeds & march ingredients
Quality control of feeds
3.1.1 Microbiological analysis
3.2.1 Gram’s staining reaction
3.2.2 Indole test
Methyl red (Mr.) voges proskaver (vp) test
aerobic bacterial count
of coliform isolates
Characterization of salmonella isolates
Composition for bacteriological culture
LIST OF TABLES
Table I: Total aerobic bacterial
Table ii: Coliform bacterial counts 56
Table iii Biochemical characteristics of
(Escherichia coli) 57
Table iv: Biochemical characteristics of
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure I: chemical composition of
constituents of the raw materials used 23
Figure II: Flow chart of poultry feed 24
Figure III: Energy, protein and Amino acid
of chicken 27
Figure iv: March Ingredient 36
The term poultry used in agriculture
generally refers to all domesticated birds kepts for egg or meat
production. These includes chickens
(domestic fowls), Grallus domestics,
turkeys, ducks and geese. This project
will deal largely with the chicken which are the most common domestic
fowl. The species of poultry are aptable
or can survive in different environments therefore, they are widely distributed
in the world, with great increase in population, the demand for goods
especially protein food become acute. To
meet the demand for animal protein and its development, rapid multiplying ones
becomes very necessary. Poultry has so
many advantages over other domesticated animal whose production is very
much hindered by lack of money, high temperature, disease and lack of good at
certain periods of the year.
of poultry is like the disease of other animals may be caused by: a. pathogenic
organisms like bacteria and viruses, protozoa, worms and some members of
Nutritional deficiency, (c) From wound or cannibalism
The following diseases are usually associated with the fowls
Chronic respiratory diseases
The incidence of salmonella and Escherida coli simply
means the extent to which the enteric organisms (Escherichia coli) that are
part of the normal flora and incidentally causes disease and pathogenic
organism (salmonella) affect the poultry feeds.
Hill, D.H; and Davis,
O.s; (1962). Shoening et al 1942).
Defined diseases as any abnormal condition of the tissue of the body, the cells
that make up the various tissue have specific functions to perform. Pekzar et
al (1977) defined Salmonell is as a disease of the chick fowl and swim bird
cause by some species or Salnaonells.
Anon (1963) described pullorum disease as an actute infection disease of body chicks
caused by salnonella pullorum. Infection is the entering of the disease produces organisms into the animal.
Livestock (Poultry )gets infected when pathogenic organisms passes to the susceptible animal
through the through the following
avenues. Esmat.omar 1977.
Feeds and contaminated water feed or water containing
droppings or waste products of diseased animal will help spread the organisms
to fresh hosts. The feeding troughs and
watering vessels aso spread the diseases if not seperated.
excretes: These material are the gateway out for some stages of oarganisms to
go out of the host and get to fresh animal hosts.
Close contact – some disease spread by contact. Their agents may be external parasites or air
borne in which case nearness to the superior’s birds increase the changes of
getting the organisms
To or event the disease pathogenic organism from
getting into the body of poultry, attention should be payed to those factors
that influence their infections and spread.
First and foremost, they should have disease resisting stock, provide
good shelter, clean range, proper
feeding and practise separating the unhealthy ones from the healthy
poultry, quarantining new stock. In case
of poultry, the brooder house should be 30m to 48m from old birds. Such that
they gets good feed and sunlight. They
should act be allowed to get in contact with their droppings or excretes since
their dropping carry the pathogenic organisms.
Sanitation is very important in poultry management by cleaning of water
cans and feed troughs and finally disinfecting the stock to help reduce organic
This study has been
justified by the need and safety of consuming children (white meat) which has
low cholesterol but rich in protein than beef which has high cholesterol. Also human beings and the world at large, benefit
from our poultry farms where we have the layers (Egg producing Chiks) and the
broilers (Heavy chicks) for consumption.
(chicken) are rich in protein and amino acid needed for growth. Livestock feeds are formulated to a ratio for
different species and classes of poultry.
These are also feed additive, which may be added to the feed to prevent
disease or make animals utilize feed better.
Some ingredient concentrate is added to nourish the feed.
OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1. To highlight the varius importance of the
livestock (poultry) t human and our industries.
2. To determine the incidence of bacteria
infection such as balmonella
and Escherichia coli which cause health hazard to the
3. To isolate and deduce effect of salmonella
specie and Escherichia coli
(poultry) and their feeds.
4. To advice poultry farmers on how to
preserve and handle their farms
infections diseases to the birds.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
This research work will be
limited to the available materials for carrying out experimental work and also
due to cost of transportation. This work will be limited to Enugu metropolis.
HYP. 10:- Salmonella and
Escherichia coli are the major causes of bacteira infection found in livestock
HYP. II: - salmonella only is the
infection that effects the livestock (poultry) feeds.
HYP. II0:- Escherichia coli only is
the bacteria infection that effects the livestock (poultry) feeds.)
STATEMNET OF PROBLEM
feeds are infected during procession by handling, mixing of ingredient and
exposing the raw materials and furnished products to the atmospheric micro
Poultry (birds) are being infected through the
consumption of the contaminated feeds and unpurified water
Also when the healthy and unhealthy birds are fed
together from the some feeding trough and water vessels, eventually the
pathogenic and the enteric organisms from infested ones may widely spread
Salmonella and Escherichia coli as the bacterial
organisms effects the essential requirement of the body such as water,
carbohydrate, fats, vitamin, minerals and protein thereby reducing the content
of the nutrient needed for the food to the palatable and easily digestible
Consumers (humans) get infected by the in take of
uncooked and half done chicken
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